Development of a Scale to Measure Educators’ Practice in Teaching Self-Determination

Pen-Chiang Chao

APA 6th edition
Chao, P. (2017). Development of a Scale to Measure Educators’ Practice in Teaching Self-Determination. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(4), 433-440. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.433

Chao P. 2017 'Development of a Scale to Measure Educators’ Practice in Teaching Self-Determination', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 433-440. Available from:

Chicago 16th edition
Chao, Pen-Chiang . "Development of a Scale to Measure Educators’ Practice in Teaching Self-Determination". (2017)European Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 4(2017): 433-440. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.433


The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing teachers’ self-determination instruction and to test the validity and reliability of this tool. The subjects included 315 teachers recruited from elementary and junior high schools nationwide in Taiwan. The Teaching Self-Determination Scale (TSDS) developed in this study aimed at assessing the extent to which educators teach students knowledge and skills related to self-determination. The 24-item TSDS is comprised of four subscales including Self-Realization, Psychological Empowerment, Self-Regulation, and Autonomy. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, t tests, and factor analyses. Findings showed that the TSDS has satisfactory psychometric properties. The internal consistency reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s α) ranged from .76 to .93, while the test-retest coefficients ranged from .71 to .87. Findings of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the four TSDS subscale factors can be reasonably extracted, which can explain 59.7% of the total item variance. The confirmatory factor analysis results further indicated a good fit between the measurement model and the sample data (GFI = .96, AGFI = .91, RMSEA = .08, NFI = .97, RFI = .93, IFI = .98, TLI = .95, CFI = .98). Suggestions are provided for future research.

Keywords: Scale development, self-determination, teachers, validity and reliability.


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