Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers

Bhagat Singh, Arun Kumar

APA 6th edition
Singh, B., & Kumar, A. (2016). Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 1-9. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.1

Singh B., and Kumar A. 2016 'Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.1

Chicago 16th edition
Singh, Bhagat and Kumar, Arun . "Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers". (2016)European Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 1(2016): 1-9. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.1


The objective of the study was to find out the effect of EI and gender on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. A total of 300 (150 male and 150 female) primary school teachers were selected randomly for the study. Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS) were used to collect the data. The study found a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. Regression analysis showed that emotional management and emotional maturity significantly predicted the job satisfaction. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that the interaction effect of gender and EI was not significant. Results also showed that level of EI significantly affected the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. However, there is no significant difference between male and female teachers regarding the level of job satisfaction. There are other factors which affect job satisfaction but the role of EI cannot be neglected. So the level of EI must be taken into consideration in order to select the best teachers.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence (EI), gender, job satisfaction, primary school teachers (PST)


Afolabi, A.O. (2004). Influence of five-factor personality attributes, need for achievement and emotional intelligence on work team interaction processes in the Niger-Delta (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Afolabi, A.O., Ogunmwonyi, E., &  Okediji, A. A. (2009). Influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Educational Research Quarterly, 33(2), 15-29. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ877244

Afolabi, O.A., Awosola, R.K., & Omole, S.O. (2010). Influence of EI and gender on job performance and job satisfaction among Nigerian policeman. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 147-154. Retrieved from http://www.maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v2-147-154.pdf

Austin, E.J. (2004). An investigation between trait emotional intelligence and emotional task performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 36 (8), 1855-1864. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.006

Bar-On, R. (1997). The bar-on emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (1998). The development of an operational concept of psychological wellbeing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Rhodes University, South Africa.

Berry, L.M. (1997). Psychology at Work. San Francisco: McGraw Hill.

Brody, L.R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and Emotion. New York: Guilford Press..

Brog, M.G., Riding, R. J., & Falzon, J. M. (1991). Stress in Teaching: A study of occupational stress and its determinants job satisfaction and career commitment among primary school teachers. Educational Psychology, 11 (1), 59-75. doi: 10.1080/0144341910110104

Caruso, D.R., & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://elibrary.kiu.ac.ug/

Chaplin, R.P. (1995). Stress and job satisfaction: a study of English primary school teachers. Educational Psychology, 15 (4), 473-489. doi: 10.1080/0144341950150409

Cherniss, C. (2001). EI and organizational effectiveness. In C. Cherniss, & D. Goleman (Eds.), The Emotionally intelligent workplace (pp: 3-12). California: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://elibrary.kiu.ac.ug/

Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P., & Mayer, J.D. (2011). Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life: A Scientific Inquiry. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

 Day, A.L., & Carroll, S.A. (2004). Using an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence to predict individual performance, group performance and group citizen behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 36 (6), 1443-1458. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00240-X

Donaldson-Feilder, E.J., & Bond, F.W. (2004). The relative importance of psychological acceptance and emotional intelligence to workplace well-being. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 32 (2), 187-203. doi:10.1080/08069880410001692210

Furnham, A. (1997). The psychology of behavior at work. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

 Goleman, D. (1998a). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 76 (6), 93-102. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10187249

Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with EI. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (2001). What makes a leader? In J. Henry (Ed.), Creative Management. London: Sage Publication.

Guleryuz, G., Guney, S., Aydin, E.M., & Asan, O. (2008). The mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment of jurses: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45 (11), 1625-1635. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.02.004

Hulin, C.L., & Smith, P.C. (1964). Sex differences in job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 48 (2), 88-92. doi: 10.1037/h0040811

Janovics, J., & Christiansen, N.D. (2001). Emotional intelligence at the workplace. Paper Presented at the 16th Annual conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Kafetsios, K., & Zampetakis, L.A. (2008). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: Testing the mediatory role of positive and negative affects at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 44 (3), 710-720. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.004

Kelley, R., & Caplan, J. (1993). How bell labs creates star performers. Harvard Business Review, 71, 128-139. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1993/07/how-bell-labs-creates-star-performers

Khouly, E.I.S., Ghoneim, A., Ghadami, M., & Ibrahim, M. (2011). Impact of emotional intelligence and gender on job satisfaction among Egyptian government sector employees. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 22-27. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1951846

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., Cote, S., & Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation ability and the quality of social interaction. Emotion, 5 (1), 113-118. doi: 0.1037/1528-3542.5.1.113

Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3-4), 772-781. Retrieved from http://unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/EIAssets/

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 432-442. Retrieved from http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/EI%20Assets

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence? Implications for Educators. In: Salovey, P. and D. Sluyter, (Eds.), Emotional Development, Emotional Literacy, and Emotional Intelligence (pp: 3-31). New York: Basic Books.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P. & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of Emotional Intelligence. In: R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511977244

Menon, M.E. & Christou, C. (2002). Perceptions of future and current teachers on the organization of elementary school: A dissonance approach to the investigation of job satisfaction. Educational Research, 44 (1), 97-110. doi: 10.1080/00131880110107397

Moriarty, V., Edmonds, S., Blatchford, P., & Martin, C. (2001). Teaching young children: Perceived satisfaction and stress. Educational Research, 43 (1), 33-46. doi: 10.1080/00131880010021276

Mousavi, S.H., Yarmohammadi, S., Nosrat, A.B., & Tarasi, Z. (2012). The relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of physical education teachers. Annals of Biological research, 3(2), 780-788. Retrieved from http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/ABR-vol3-iss2/ABR-2012-3-2-780-788.pdf

Platsidou, M. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence of Greek special education teachers in relation to burnout and job satisfaction. School Psychology International, 31(1), 60-67. doi: 10.1177/0143034309360436.

Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for intelligence? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1(3), 196-231. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12934681

Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of EI. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177. Retrieved from http://stat-athens.aueb.gr/~jpan/Schutte-1998.pdf

Scott, C., & Dinham, S. (2003). The development of scales to measure teachers and school executive occupational satisfaction. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(1), 74-86. doi: 10.1108/09578230310457448

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R.C. (2001). Social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237. doi:10.2307/3069452

Sutarso, P. (1999). Gender differences on the emotional intelligence inventory (EQI). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Science and Engineering, 60 (6-B), 3011. UIM

Sy, T., Tram, S. & O’Hara, L.A. (2006). Relation of employee and manager to job satisfaction and performance.  Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3), 461-473. Retrieved form http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ737842

Syed, S.S.S., Rohany, N., Mohammad, A.S.M.A., & Muhammad, B.M. (2012). The role of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among school teachers. The Social Science, 7(1), 125-129. doi: 10.3923/sscience.2012.125.129

Tabatabaei, S. O., & Farazmehr, Z. (2015). The relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Iranian Language Institute Teacher’ Job Satisfaction. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5 (1), 184-195. doi:10.17507/tpls.0501.25

Tans, L. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and contextual performance as influenced by job satisfaction and locus of control orientation (An Unpublished D.M. Thesis). Alliant International University, San Diego.

Throndike, R.L. (1936). Factor analysis of social and abstract intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 27 (3), 231-233. doi: 10.1037/h0059840

Varca, P.E., Shaffer, G.S., & McCauley, C.D. (1983). Sex differences in job satisfaction revisited. Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), 348-353. doi: 10.2307/255982

Wong, C. S., Wong, P.M., & Peng, K.Z. (2010). Effect of middle-level leader and teacher emotional intelligence on school teachers’ job satisfaction: The case of Hong Kong. Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 38(1), 59-70. doi: 10.1177/1741143209351831

Zaleznik, A., Christensen, C.R., & Roethlisberger, F.J. (1958). The motivation, productivity and satisfaction of workers: a prediction study. Boston: Harvard University, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration. Retrieved from http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b4415481;view=1up;seq=7