EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts

Abbas Ali Zarei, Hamide Layeq


APA 6th edition
Zarei, A.A., & Layeq, H. (2016). EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 19-25. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19

Harvard
Zarei A.A., and Layeq H. 2016 'EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19-25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19

Chicago 16th edition
Zarei, Abbas Ali and Layeq, Hamide . "EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts". (2016)European Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 1(2016): 19-25. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on Iranian adult EFL learners’ use of direct strategies. To this end, a sample of 88 non-English major university students at Sohrevardi Nonprofit College in Qazvin were assigned to two groups, and each group received instruction under one of the treatment conditions including cooperative and competitive teaching techniques. To collect data, the Persian translation of a modified version of the subsection of Oxford’s Strategy Inventory of Language Learning pertaining to direct strategy use was administered before and after the treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) procedure. The result of data analysis showed no significant difference between the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on direct strategy use of Iranian adult EFL learners. The findings of the present study may have implications for learners, teachers, and syllabus designers.

Keywords: Competitive teaching techniques, cooperative teaching techniques, direct strategy use


References

Ames, C. & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.

Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Longman.

Brown, A.L., & Palinscar, A.S. (1982). Including Strategic learning from contexts by means of informed self-control training, Technical Report, 26 (2), 1-49.

Chamout, A. U. (2004). Issues in Language Learning Strategy Research and Teaching, Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 14-26.

Cohen, A.D. (2000). Strategies in Learning and using Second Language. Benjing: Foreign language teaching and research press.

Cooke, S. D. (2013). Examining Transcription, Autonomy and Reflective Practice in Language Development, RELC Journal, 44(1), 75-85.

Cubukcu, F. (2008). Enhancing vocabulary development and reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 18(1), 1-11.

Dhanapa, K. V. (2007). Focus on Language Learning Strategies of advanced learners in Japanese and Sri Lanka. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 13(1), 153-164.

Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fatih-Ashtiani, A. and Salimi, S-h. Ayubi, M. and Mohebbi, H-A. (2007). A Comparison of the Cooperative Learning Model on Academic Achievement. Journal of Applied Science, 7(1), 137-140.

Gaith, G. M. (2002). The relationship between cooperative learning, perception of social support, and academic achievement. System, 30, 263-273.

Gaith, GH. (2003). Effects of the Learning Together Model of Cooperative Learning on English as Foreign Language Reading Achievement, Academic Self-Esteem, and Feeling of School Alienation. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 451-474.

Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology & Education, 7(1), 22-30.

Griffths, C. (2006). Strategy development and progress in language learning. Prospect, 21(3), 58-75.

Guilloteaux, M. J. & Dorneyei, Z. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effect of Motivational strategies on students' motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42(1), 55-77.

Hung, W., Mehl, K., & Bergland Holen, J. (2013). The relationship between Problem Design and Learning Process in Problem-Based Learning Environment: Two Cases. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 635-645.

Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (2009). An Educational Psychology Success story: Social Interdependence Theory and cooperative learning. Educational Research, 38(5), 365-379.

Lessard-Clouston, M. (1997). Language Learning Strategies: An Overview for L2 Teachers. The internet TESOL Journal, 3(12), 69-80.

Littlewood, W. (1990). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian context. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.

Mandal, R.R. (2009). Cooperative Learning Strategies to Enhance Writing Skill. The modern Journal of applied Linguistics, 1(2), 94-102.

Murphy, L. (2008). Supporting learner autonomy: Developing practice through the production of courses for distance learners of French, German and Spanish, Language Teaching Research, 12(1), 83-102.

Nassaji, H. & Tian, J. (2010). Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learning English phrasal verbs, RELC Journal, 14(4), 397-419.

Okamura, A. (2006). Two types of strategies used by Japenese scientist, when writing research article in English. System, 34, 68-79.

O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzarares, G., Russo, R.P., & Küpper, L. (1985). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 557-584.

O’Malley, J.M, & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ortega, L. (2003). Syntactic complexity measures and their relationship to L2 proficiency: A research synthesis of college-level L2 writing. Applied Linguistic, 24(4), 492-518.

Oxford, R. and Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: methods, findings, and instructional issues. The Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404-419.

Oxford, R, L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner″ can teach us, TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

Qingquan,N., Chatupote, M. & Teo, A. (2008). A Deep Look into Learning Strategy Use by Successful and Unsuccessful Students in the Chinese EFL Learning Context, RELC Journal, 39(3), 338-358.

Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117-131.

Tinker Sachs, G.; N. Candlin, CH.; and R. Rose, K., (2003). Developing cooperative Learning in EFL/ESL Secondary classroom. RELC Journal, 34(3), 338-369.

Towns, M. H. (1998). How do I get my students to work together? Getting Cooperative learning started. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(1), 67-69.

Tseng, w-t, Dornyei, Z, & Schmitt, N. (2006). a New Approach to Assessing Strategic Learning: The Case of Self-Regulation in Vocabulary Acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 27(1), 78-102.

Vandergrift, L. (2005). Relationships among motivations, orientations, Meta-cognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied linguistics, 26(1), 70-89.

Waden, A., & Rubin J. (eds). (1987). Leaner Strategies in language learning. London: Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Williams, M., Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambrige: Cambridge university press.

Zarei, A. A, and Elekaei, A. (2012). Learner Autonomy and Language Learning Strategies. LAP: LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Zhang, Y. (2010). Cooperative language learning and foreign language learning and teaching. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 81-83.

Zhang, B. & Li, Ch. (2011). Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Explanatory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses, RELC Journal, 42(2), 141-154.