EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts

Abbas Ali Zarei, Hamide Layeq

APA 6th edition
Zarei, A.A., & Layeq, H. (2016). EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 19-25. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19

Zarei A.A., and Layeq H. 2016 'EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19-25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19

Chicago 16th edition
Zarei, Abbas Ali and Layeq, Hamide . "EFL Learners’ Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts". (2016)European Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 1(2016): 19-25. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19


This study investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on Iranian adult EFL learners’ use of direct strategies. To this end, a sample of 88 non-English major university students at Sohrevardi Nonprofit College in Qazvin were assigned to two groups, and each group received instruction under one of the treatment conditions including cooperative and competitive teaching techniques. To collect data, the Persian translation of a modified version of the subsection of Oxford’s Strategy Inventory of Language Learning pertaining to direct strategy use was administered before and after the treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) procedure. The result of data analysis showed no significant difference between the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on direct strategy use of Iranian adult EFL learners. The findings of the present study may have implications for learners, teachers, and syllabus designers.

Keywords: Competitive teaching techniques, cooperative teaching techniques, direct strategy use


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