Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Reflections in the Context of Conducting Clinical Interviews

Rukiye Didem Taylan

APA 6th edition
Taylan, R.D. (2018). Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Reflections in the Context of Conducting Clinical Interviews. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(2), 349-358. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.349

Taylan R.D. 2018 'Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Reflections in the Context of Conducting Clinical Interviews', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 349-358. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.349

Chicago 16th edition
Taylan, Rukiye Didem . "Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Reflections in the Context of Conducting Clinical Interviews". (2018)European Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 2(2018): 349-358. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.349


This study investigated prospective mathematics teachers’ reflections on the experience of designing and conducting one-to-one clinical interviews with middle school students in the context of an elective course on use of video in teacher learning. Prospective teachers were asked to write about weaknesses and strengths in student understanding as well as their own performance as an interviewer in terms of asking questions and responding to student thinking in their reflections on conducting clinical interviews. Furthermore, prospective teachers were also asked to reflect on what they would do differently in order to conduct better clinical interviews.  Nature of prospective teachers’ reflections were analyzed by using existing frameworks (through constructs of reflection-on-action and reflection-for-action) and by using thematic analysis. Results of data analyses revealed that prospective teachers had more difficulties in providing meaningful reflection-for-action which was related to alternative decisions and planning for future similar interviews. Thematic analysis results revealed prospective teachers’ learning were grouped under three categories: conducting clinical interviews as part of being a teacher, complexity of conducting clinical interviews, and personal theories about middle school students. There are implications for both teacher learning and research.

Keywords: Prospective mathematics teachers, reflection skills, clinical interview.


Cengiz, N., Kline, K., & Grant, T. (2011). Extending students’ mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 15(5), 1–20.

Crespo, S. & Nicol, C. (2003). Learning to investigate students’ mathematical thinking: The role of student interviews, Proceedings of PME-27, Vol. 2, 261-267, Honolulu, U. S. A.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th ed.). London: Routledge.

Davis, E.A. (2006). Characterizing productive reflection among preservice elementary teachers: Seeing what matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 281-301.

Farrell, T.S. (2013). Reflecting on ESL teacher expertise: A case study. System, 41 (4), 1070-1082.

Franke, M., Webb, N. M., Chan, A.G., Ing, M., Freund, D., & Battey, D. (2009). Teacher questioning to elicit students’ mathematical thinking in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Teacher Education, 60 (4), 380-392.

Gelfuso, A., & Dennis, D. (2014). Getting reflection off the page: The challenges of developing support structures for pre-service teacher reflection. Teaching and Teacher Education, 38, 1-11. 

Ginsburg, H. (1997). Entering the child’s mind: The clinical interview in psychological research and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ginsburg, H. P., Cami, A. E., & Preston, M. D. (2010). Inquiry practices: How can they be taught well? In N. Lyons (Ed.), Handbook of reflection and reflective inquiry: Mapping a way of knowing for professional reflective inquiry (pp. 453-472). New York: Springer.

Ginsburg, H. P., Jacobs, S. F., & Lopez, L. S. (1998). The teacher's guide to flexible interviewing in the classroom: Learning what children know about math. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633.

Jacobs, V. R.  & Empson, S. B. (2016). Responding to children’s mathematical thinking in the moment: an emerging framework of teaching moves. ZDM Mathematics Education, 48, 185-197.

Jacobs, V. R., Lamb, L. L. C., Philipp, R. A., & Schappelle, B. P. (2011). Deciding how to respond on the basis of children's understandings. In M. G. Sherin, V. R., Jacobs, & R. A. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing: Seeing through teachers' eyes (pp. 97–116). New York: Routledge.

Jenkins, O. F. (2010). Developing teachers’ knowledge of students as learners of mathematics through structured interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 13, 141-154.

Kagan, D. M. (1992). Professional growth among pre-service and beginning teachers.

Review of Educational Research, 62(2), 129-169.

Killion, J., & Todnem, G. (1991). A process of personal theory building. Educational Leadership, 48(6), 14– 17.

Korkko, M., Kyro - Ämmälä, O. & Turunen, T. (2016). Professional development through reflection in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 198 - 206.

Loughran, J. (2007). Researching teacher education practices: Responding to challenges, demands and expectations of self-study. Journal of Teacher Education, 58 (1), 12-20.

Moyer, P.S. & Milewicz, E. (2002). Learning to question: Categories of questioning used by preservice teachers during diagnostic mathematics interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 5 (4), 293-315.

Mewborn, D.S. & Huberty, P.D. (1999). Questioning your way to the standards. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(4), 226–227, 243–246.

Meschede, N., Fiebranz, A., Moller, K., & Steffensky, M. (2017). Teachers' professional vision, pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs: On its relation and differences between pre-service and in-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education66, 158-170. 

Olteanu, C. (2016). Reflection and the object of learning. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5(1), 60–75.

Olteanu, C. (2017). Reflection-for-action and the choice or design of examples in the teaching of mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29, 349-367.

Reinhold, S. (2016). Uncovering facets of interpreting in diagnostic strategies pre-service teachers use in one-on-one interviews with first-graders. In Konrad Krainer; Nadˇa Vondrova ́ (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 2895-2901). Prague, Czech Republic.

Sahin, A., & Kulm, G. (2008). Sixth grade mathematics teachers’ intentions and use of probing, guiding, and factual questions. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11(3), 221-242.

Santagata, R., & Angelici, G. (2010). Studying the impact of the lesson analysis framework on preservice teachers' abilities to reflect on videos of classroom teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(4), 339-349.

Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Schorr, R. Y. (2001). A study of the use of clinical interviewing with prospective teachers. In M. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th conference of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (Vol. 4, pp. 153–160). Utrecht, The Netherlands: Freudenthal Institute.

Schorr, R.Y., & Ginsburg, H.P. (2000). Using clinical interviews to promote pre - service teachers’ understanding of children’s mathematical thinking. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Seidel, T., Stürmer, K., Blomberg, G., Kobarg, M., & Schwindt, K. (2011). Teacher learn- ing from analysis of videotaped classroom situations: Does it make a difference whether teachers observe their own teaching or that of others? Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 259–267.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.

Star, J. & Strickland, S. (2008). Learning to observe: Using video to improve pre-service mathematics teachers’ ability to notice. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11(2), 107 – 125.

Stein, M. K, Engle, R. A., Smith, M.S., & Hughes, E. K. (2008). Orchestrating productive mathematical discussions: Five practices for helping teachers move beyond show and tell. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 10(4), 313–340.

Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Stockero, S. L. (2008). Using a video-based curriculum to develop a reflective stance in prospective mathematics teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11, 373-394.

Taylan, R. D. (2017). Promoting active learning in mathematics teacher education: The flipped classroom method and use of video content. In J. Keengwe & P. Bull (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Transformative Digital Content and Learning Technologies, 269-284. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Turunen, T.A., & Tuovila, S. (2012). Mind the gap. Combining theory and practice in a field experience. Teaching Education, 23 (2), 195-198.

van Es, E. (2011). A framework for learning to notice student thinking. In M. G. Sherin, V. R. Jacobs, & R. A. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing: Seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 134–151). New York: Routledge.

Weiland, I., Hudson, R., & Amador, J. (2014). Preservice formative assessment interviews: The development of competent questioning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education12, 329–352.