logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
interactive multimedia observational learning national historical event character

Development of Interactive Multimedia Learning Courseware to Strengthen Students’ Character

An-nisa Nur Sholihah Indah Septiani , Triana Rejekiningsih , Triyanto , Rusnaini

The development of information technology rapidly has an impact on the changing paradigm of education. On the other hand, education holds an important.


The development of information technology rapidly has an impact on the changing paradigm of education. On the other hand, education holds an important responsibility to create students who have a good and strong character. This research aims to: 1) describe the concept and framework of interactive multimedia courseware; 2) test the feasibility of interactive multimedia courseware by experts and practitioners; 3) test student responses to the use of interactive multimedia courseware. This research and development involved experts, teachers, and students. The data were collected using expert validation sheets, teacher questionnaires, and student questionnaires. They were then analyzed using the descriptive statistics analysis based on mean and percentage. This research yielded interactive multimedia courseware called IMONEC (Interactive Multimedia courseware integrated with Bandura’s Observational learning model and National historical Event to strengthen students' Character) that integrates three important components: the principles of interactive multimedia learning; Bandura's observational learning model; and the noble values and messages of national historical events to strengthen students' characters. The framework of the interactive multimedia courseware consists of the title, user instruction, home, core competency and basic competency, concept map of material, learning material, and quizzes. The results of the expert validation, teacher questionnaire, and student questionnaire showed that the interactive multimedia courseware is feasible for use in learning and effective in strengthening students’ characters.

Keywords: Interactive multimedia, observational learning, national historical event, character.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Agboola, A., & Tsai, K. C. (2012). Bring character education into classroom. European Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 163–170. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.163

Agung, L. (2011). Character education integration in social studies learning. Historia: International Journal of History Education, 12(2), 392–403. https://doi.org/10.17509/historia.v12i2.12111

Akbar, G., Hidayat, S., & Wahab, T. (2016). Perancangan buku aktivitas anak tentang pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional bandung [Designing children’s activity books on the heroes of bandung’s national independence]. E-Proceesing of Art & Design, 3(3), 754–762.

Akbar, S. (2013). Instrumen perangkat pembelajaran [Learning instruments]. PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Al-Rabaani, A. H. (2018). Social studies teachers’ perspectives on the advantages and challenges of interactive whiteboard application in oman. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(4), 753–762. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.753

Alshehri, A., Rutter, M., & Smith, S. (2019). Assessing the relative importance of an e-learning system’s usability design characteristics based on students’ preferences. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 839–855. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.839

Ampa, A. T., Rasyid, M. A., Rahman, M. A., Haryanto, & Basri, M. D. (2013). The implementation of multimedia learning materials in teaching english speaking skills. International Journal of English Language Education, 1(3), 293–304. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v1i3.4153

Apriani, E. (2016). A new literacy : the role of technology to develop student’ s character. Journal of Islamic Education, 21(1), 59–72.

Ariani, N., & Haryanto, D. (2010). Pembelajaran multimedia di sekolah: pedoman pembelajaran inspiratif, konstruktif, dan perspektif [Multimedia learning in schools: inspiring, constructive, and perspective learning guidelines]. Prestasi Pustakarya.

Ash-shidiqqi, E. A. (2018). The analysis of character education in Indonesia. International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies, 3(4), 39–46.

Cahyono, K. A., Sajidan, & Sarwanto. (2014). Pengembangan dan implementasi multimedia interaktif berbasis POEW menggunakan macromedia flash pada materi pencemaran [Development and implementation of interactive multimedia based on POEW using macromedia flash on pollution material]. Inquiry Journal/ Jurnal Inkuiri, 3(3), 11–18. https://doi.org/10.20961/inkuiri.v3i3.9660

Djamas, D., Timedi, V., & Yohandri. (2018). Development of interactive multimedia learning materials for improving critical thinking skills. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 14(4), 66–84.

Fitriyadi, H. (2013). Integrasi teknologi informasi komunikasi dalam pendidikan: Potensi manfaat, masyarakat berbasis pengetahuan, pendidikan nilai, strategi implementasi dan pengembangan profesional [Integration of information and communication technology in education: The potential benefits, knowledge-based society, values, strategy implementation and professional development]. Journal of Technology and Vocational Education [Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi Dan Kejuruan], 21(3), 269–284. https://doi.org/10.21831/jptk.v21i3.3255

Guilfoile, L., & Delander, B. (2014). Guidebook : Six proven practices for effective civic learning. Education Commission of the States (ECS).

Gunawardhana, P. D., & Palaniappan, S. (2016). Using multimedia as an education tool. 9th Annual International Conference on Computer Games Multimedia & Allied Technologies (CGAT 2016), 98–101. https://doi.org/10.5176/2251-1679_CGAT16.15

Hamdi, M., & Hamtini, T. M. (2016). Designing an effective e-content development framework for the enhancement of learning programming. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(04), 131. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v11i04.5574

Hamidi, F., Kharamideh, Z. M., & Ghorbandordinejad, F. (2011). Comparison of the training effects of interactive multimedia (CDs) and non-interactive media (films) on increasing learning speed, accuracy and memorization in biological science course. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 144–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.025

Hapsari, A. S., Hanif, M., Gunarhadi, & Roemintoyo. (2019). Motion graphic animation videos to improve the learning outcomes of elementary school students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1245–1255. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1245

Harmanto, Listyaningsih, & Wijaya, R. (2018). Characteristics of competence and civic education materials curriculum in primary school in Indonesia. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 953(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012150

Hidayati, A., Zaim, M., Rukun, K., & Darmansyah, D. (2014). The development of character education curriculum for elementary student in West Sumatera. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(6), 189–198.

Hill, W. F. (2012). Learning: A survey of psychological interpretations. (A. Prihatmoko, Trans.) Nusa Media. (Original work published 2001).

Hooker, V. M. (2003). A short history of Malaysia: Linking East and West. Allen & Unwin. http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/library/shorthistoryofmalaysia.pdf

Huang, H., & Liu, X. (2018). Historical knowledge and national identity: Evidence from China. Research & Politics, 5(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168018794352

International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development. (2018). A cross-country report on trends of extremism in South and South-East Asia [Working paper]. INFID. https://www.infid.org/publication/read/working-paper-cross-country-report-trends-extremism-south-and-south-east-asia

Komalasari, K. (2009). The effect of contextual learning in civic education on students’ civic competence. Journal of Social Sciences, 5(4), 261–270. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2009.261.270

Komalasari, K., & Rahmat, R. (2019). Living values based interactive multimedia in civic education learning. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 113–126. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.1218a

Komalasari, K., & Saripudin, D. (2017). Value-based interactive multimedia development through integrated practice for the formation of students’ character. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 16(4), 179–186.

Kuswono, K., & Khaeroni, C. (2017). Pengembangan modul sejarah pergerakan indonesia terintegrasi nilai karakter religius [Development of movement history of indonesia module integrated religious character values]. HISTORIA, 5(1), 31–44. https://doi.org/10.24127/hj.v5i1.730

Laksono, A. (2013). Menuju Indonesia emas: Gerakan bersama mewujudkan masyarakat adil, makmur, dan sejahtera [Towards a golden Indonesia: A joint movement to create a just, well-heeled and prosperous society]. Coordinating Ministry for the People's Welfare.

Leow, F.-T., & Neo, M. (2014). Interactive multimedia learning: Innovating classroom education in a Malaysian university. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 99–110.

Liu, J. H., & Hilton, D. J. (2005). How the past weighs on the present: Social representations of history and their role in identity politics. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(4), 537–556. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466605X27162

Mahdum, M., Hadriana, H., & Safriyanti, M. (2019). Exploring teacher perceptions and motivations to ICT use in learning activities in Indonesia. Journal of Information Technology Education, 18, 293–317. https://doi.org/httpS://doi.org/10.28945/4366

Maksum, A. (2015). Interpretasi sejarah sebagai peristiwa dan masalah pendidikan [Interpretation of history as educational events and problems]. At-Turats Journal, 9(2), 3. https://doi.org/10.24260/at-turats.v9i2.312

Mulyono, B. (2017). Reorientasi civic disposition dalam kurikulum pendidikan kewarganegaraan sebagai upaya membentuk warga negara yang ideal [Reorientation of civic disposition in the civics education curriculum as an effort to form ideal citizens]. Journal of Civics: Citizenship Studies Media [Jurnal Civics: Media Kajian Kewarganegaraan], 14(2), 218–225. https://doi.org/10.21831/civics.v14i2.17007

Munir. (2012). Multimedia: Konsep & aplikasi dalam pendidikan [Multimedia: Concepts & applications in education]. Alfabeta.

Nabavi, R. T. (2012). Bandura’s social learning theory & social cognitive learning theory. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267750204_Bandura’s_Social_Learning_Theory_Social_Cognitive_Learning_Theory

Neo, M., Neo, T., & Yap, W.-L. (2008). Students’ perceptions of interactive multimedia mediated web-based learning : A Malaysian perspective. in R. Atkinson & C. McBeath (Eds.), Proceedings Ascilite Melbourne 2008, 658–666. Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education.

Nusir, S., Alsmadi, I., Al-Kabi, M., & Sharadgah, F. (2013). Studying the impact of using multimedia interactive programs on children’s ability to learn basic Math skills. E-Learning and Digital Media, 10(3), 305–319. https://doi.org/10.2304/elea.2013.10.3.305

Qomariyah, S., Gunarhadi, & Rejekiningsih, T. (2019). Edmodo in blended learning to increase language learners’ understanding in learning grammar for toefl. International Journal of Educational Research Review, 4(1), 82–87. https://doi.org/10.24331/ijere.486653

Rajendra, I. M., & Sudana, I. M. (2018). The influence of interactive multimedia technology to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical technology. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 953, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012104

Ratminingsih, N. M., Mahadewi, L. P. P., & Divayana, D. G. H. (2018). ICT-based interactive game in teyl: teachers’ perception, students’ motivation, and achievement. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(9), 190–203. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i09.8170

Riduwan. (2010). Dasar-dasar statistika [Basic of statistics]. Alfabeta.

Saidek, A. R., Raisul Islami, & Abdoludin. (2016). Character issues: Reality character problems and solutions through education in Indonesia. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(17), 158–165.

Sarac, H., & Tarhan, D. (2017). Effect of multimedia assisted 7e learning model applications on academic achievement and retention in students. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(3), 299–311. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.299

Sardiman, A. (2012). Pembelajaran sejarah dan nilai-nilai kepahlawanan [Historical learning and heroic values]. Yogyakarta State University. http://eprints.uny.ac.id/id/eprint/1030

Saryono, D., Koesoema, D. A., Kanumoyoso, B., Umasih, Widiatmoko, A., Tirmizi, & Listyaningtyas, H. (2018). PPK berbasis kelas melalui sejarah [Strengthening class-based character education through history]. Directorate General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: an educational perspective 6th Edition (E. Setyowati, Trans.). Pustaka Pelajar. (Original Work Published 2011)

Shahroom, A. A., & Hussin, N. (2018). Industrial revolution 4.0 and education. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(9), 314–319. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i9/4593

Solihin, N. (2017). Understanding the radicalism movement in Indonesia: A conflict approach to the rise of terrorism. AJIS: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies, 2(1), 25–48. https://doi.org/10.29240/ajis.v2i1.166

Sukasni, A., & Efendy, H. (2017). The problematic of education system in Indonesia and reform agenda. International Journal of Education, 9(3), 183. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v9i3.11705

Sundus, M. (2017). The impact of using gadgets on children. Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 07(01), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.1000296

Syawaludin, A., Gunarhadi, G., & Rintayati, P. (2019a). Enhancing elementary school students’ abstract reasoning in science learning through augmented reality-based interactive multimedia. Indonesian Science Education Journal/ Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(2), 288–297. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v8i2.19249

Syawaludin, A., Gunarhadi, G., & Rintayati, P. (2019b). Development of augmented reality-based interactive multimedia to improve critical thinking skills in science learning. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 331–344. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12421a

Teacher Association of the Republic of Indonesia. (2014). Pendidikan untuk transformasi bangsa: Arah baru pendidikan untuk perubahan mental bangsa [Education for nation transformation: New directions for education for nation mental change]. Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Terentyeva, I. V, Pugacheva, N. B., Luchinina, A. O., Khalmetov, T. A., Safin, N. M., & Shaydullina, A. N. (2019). Selection and structuring of training multimedia educational materials for university students: Practical recommendations. International Journal of Instruction, 12(3), 759–780. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12346a

The Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia. (2003). Undang-undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia [Indonesian National Education System Act Number 20 of 2003]. UU No. 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional. http://simkeu.kemdikbud.go.id/index.php/peraturan1/8-uu-undang-undang/12-uu-no-20-tahun-2003-tentang-sistem-pendidikan-nasional

The Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Lampiran Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun 2016 tentang Standar Proses Pendidikan Dasar dan Pendidikan Menengah [Attachment of the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia Number 22 of 2016 on Standars of Process in Basic and Medium Education]. Lampiran Permendikbud Nomor 22 Tahun 2016. https://bsnp-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/Permendikbud_Tahun2016_Nomor022_Lampiran.pdf

The Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia (2018). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2018 tentang Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter [Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia Number 20 of 2018 on Strengthening Character Education]. Permendikbud No. 20 Tahun 2018. https://jdih.kemdikbud.go.id/arsip/Permendikbud_Tahun2018_Nomor20.pdf

Tri Harinie, L., Sudiro, A., Rahayu, M., & Fatchan, A. (2017). Study of the Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning Theory for the Entrepreneurship Learning Process. Social Sciences, 6(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20170601.11

Umar, S., & Susilowati, R. (2012). Pengembangan Multimedia Interaktif Guna Pemerolehan Belajar Konsep Perilaku Menyimpang pada Mata Pelajaran Sosiologi Kelas X SMA N 1 Sungai Raya Kepulauan [Development of Interactive Multimedia to Acquire Learning Deviant Behavior Concepts in Sociology Subject]. Journal of Educational Technology/ Jurnal Teknodik, 16(2), 131–147.

Wallach, S. (2010). U.S.A. History in brief. Bureau of International Information Programs United States Department of State. http://www.america.gov/publications/books/ learner_english.html

Wastiau, P., Blamire, R., Kearney, C., Quittre, V., Van de Gaer, E., & Monseur, C. (2013). The Use of ICT in Education: a survey of schools in Europe. European Journal of Education, 48(1), 11–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12020

Weiss, M. R. (2001). Developmental Sport Psychology. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 3620–3624). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/01382-6

Wiana, W., Barliana, M. S., & Riyanto, A. A. (2018). The effectiveness of using interactive multimedia based on motion graphic in concept mastering enhancement and fashion designing skill in digital format. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 520(02), 4. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i02.7830

Widodo, S. K. (2012). Memaknai sumpah pemuda di era reformasi [Interpreting the historical events of the youth pledge in the reformation era]. Humanika, 16(9), 1–11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14710/humanika.16.9.

Winarno, ., Rusnaini, ., & Al Rasyid, M. (2018). Analysis of attitude assessment instrument in pancasila and citizenship education student textbook for tenth grade. In S. Ulfa, Sunaryono, A. Taufiq, & A.P. Wibawa (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Learning Innovation, Icli 2018, (pp. 126–131). SCITEPRESS-Sience and Technology Publications. https://doi.org/10.5220/0008408801260131

Wu, T. J., & Tai, Y. N. (2016). Effects of multimedia information technology integrated Multi-Sensory instruction on students’ learning motivation and outcome. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(4), 1065–1074. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2016.1552a

Yeop, M. A., Yaakob, M. F. M., Wong, K. T., Don, Y., & Zain, F. M. (2019). Implementation of ICT policy (blended learning approach): Investigating factors of behavioural intention and use behaviour. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 767–782. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12149a

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2004). Educational psychology: One-hundred years of contributions. Lawrence Earlbaum.