The Inclusion of Social Issues in the Curricula Adopted at the Elementary Education Level in Turkey

Fatmanur Ozen , Temel Topal

APA 6th edition
Ozen, F., & Topal, T. (2019). The Inclusion of Social Issues in the Curricula Adopted at the Elementary Education Level in Turkey. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 361-375. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.361

Ozen F., and Topal T. 2019 'The Inclusion of Social Issues in the Curricula Adopted at the Elementary Education Level in Turkey', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 361-375. Available from:

Chicago 16th edition
Ozen, Fatmanur and Topal, Temel . "The Inclusion of Social Issues in the Curricula Adopted at the Elementary Education Level in Turkey". (2019)European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 1(2019): 361-375. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.361


In Turkey, as in all countries of the world, education is regarded as the sole means of modernization, progress, civilization, productivity, and sustainability of all these things. The aim of the Turkish education system is to raise students with the national, moral and cultural values of the Turkish nation, to educate them as citizens of a social law state, and solve the existing or potential problems that may arise in the future. The most important document that shows how this aim will be achieved in the country is the curriculum. The purpose of this study is to reveal the frequency of the social issues included in the current curriculum at the elementary education level. Within the scope of the study, social issues presented by sociologists were established through e-Delphi panels, coded under seven titles by researchers, those who were thought to bring solutions to these problems were counted by descriptive analysis method in the specific aims, themes and achievements of the curriculum used at elementary level. Results show that curriculum adopted at the elementary education level include mostly issues related to individual life and individualization, socialization, democratic life and democratization while economic issues, and issues related to family, environment and urbanization are emphasized less. These findings are discussed with other research results.

Keywords: Social issues, education, curriculum, elementary curricula


Acosta, I. C. & Acosta, A. S. (2017). A mixed methods study on teachers' perceptions of readiness of higher education institutions to the implementation of the k-12 curriculum. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(7), 1215-1232. doi: 10.13189/ujer.2017.050714.

Akinoglu, O. (2005). Turkiye’de uygulanan ve degisen egitim programlarinin psikolojik temelleri [Changing psychological foundations of education programs implemented in Turkey]. M. U. Ataturk Egitim Fakultesi Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 22, 31-46. Retrieved from

Akinoglu, O. (2008). Primary education curriculum reforms in Turkey. World Applied Sciences Journal, 3(2), 195-199. Retrieved from

Akyuz, Y. (2005). Turk egitim tarihi [History of Turkish education]. Ankara: PegemAkademi.

Akyuz, Y. (2012). Turkiye’de ogretmelerin toplumsal degismedeki etkileri (1839-1950) [Impact of teachers' on social change in Turkey (1839-1950)]. Ankara: PegemAkademi.

Alaca, E. (2017). An evaluations of social studies coursebook. Education and Society in 21st Century, 6(18), 759-785. Retrieved from

Alici, B. (2012). Egitim programi tasarimi ve modeller [Training program design and models]. H. Seker (Ed.), In Egitimde program gelistirme [Curriculum development in education]  (pp. 71-88). Ankara: Ani.

Almogbel, A. N. (2015). International education issues in Saudi Arabia’s public education curricula: An analytical study. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 5(1), 1-24. Retrieved from

Amagir, A., Groot, W., Maassen van den Brink, H., & Wilschut, A. (2018). A review of financial literacy education programs for children and adolescents. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 17(1), 56–80. doi: 10.1177/2047173417719555

Aquah, P. A. (2014). Enriching the business education curriculum for relevance in the global workforce.  Global Journal of Human-Social Science: G Linguistics & Education, 14(7), 30-35. Retrieved from

Aykac, N. (2014). Ogretim ilke ve yontemleri [Teaching principles and methods]. Ankara: PegemAkademi.

Bas, G. (2011). Turkiye’de egitim programlarinda yapilandirmacilik: Dun, bugun, yarin [Constructivism in curriculum in Turkey: Yesterday, today, tomorrow]. Egitisim Dergisi, 32. Retrieved from

Basaran, I. E. (1982). Temel egitim ve yonetim [Basic education and management]. Ankara: Ankara University.

Bueno, C. F. (2017). Areas of sociology. Retrieved from

Cezayirli, G. (2004). Kuresellesme, bireysellesme ve toplumsallasma [Globalization, individualization and socialization]. Erdem [Virtue], 14(41), Retrieved from

Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford: How to Books.

Demirel, O. (2002). Kuramdan uygulamaya egitimde program gelistirme [Curriculum development from theory to practice]. Ankara: PegemA.

Dobrocká, S., & Szórádová, E. (2017). School curriculum as a means of shaping national identity: Music education in the Slovak region of Czechoslovakia in the interwar period (1918–1939). Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 26(2), 165–179. doi: 10.1080/14681366.2017.1365751

Ekinci, N. (2016). Turkiye’de cok partili duzene geciste dis etkenler [External factors in the transition to multi-party system in Turkey]. Ankara: Gece.

Fine, G. A. (2006). The chaining of social problems: Solutions and unintended consequences in the age of betrayal. Social Problems, 53(1), 3–17. doi: 10.1525/sp.2006.53.1.3

Gurkan, T & Gokce, E. (1999). Turkiye’de ve cesitli ulkelerde ilkogretim [Elementary education in Turkey and various countries]. Ankara: Siyasal.

Gress, D. R., & Shin, J. (2016). Potential for knowledge in action? An analysis of Korean green energy related K3–12 curriculum and texts. Environmental Education Research, 23(6), 874–885. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2016.1204987

Hidmi, N. S. (2017/2018). Imposing the Israel curriculum on Palestinian Jeruselam schools: The Shovel destroying our national identity. Palestina-Israel Jounal of Politics, Economics and Culture, 22/23(4/1), 44-48.  

Higher Education Board (2019). All universities with sociology program. Retrieved from

Hurriyet. (2017, 17 July). Turkish education ministry reveals new curriculum: Evolution out, ‘jihad’ in.   Retrieved November 20, 2018 from 

Ipek, I. (2011). Assessment of citizen education primary 6th and 7th grade social studies course book and objectives of social studies teaching’s curriculum in terms of  appropriateness. (Master thesis). Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DELL/Downloads/279381.pdf

Koc, Y., Isiksal, M. & Bulut, S. (2007). Elementary school curriculum reform in Turkey. International Education Journal, 8(1), 30-39. Retrieved from

Law No: 430. Tevhid-i Tedrisat Yasasi [Unification of Education Law] (1924, 03 March). Official Newspaper (No: 63). Retrieved from:

Levitt, K. E. (2001). An analysis of elementary teachers’ beliefs regarding the teaching and learning of science. Science Education, 86(1), 1-22. doi: 10.1002/sce.1042

Michie, M. (2017). Comparing the Indonesian kuriculum 2013 with the Australian curriculum: Focusing on science for junior secondary schools. The International Education Journal: Comperative Perspectives, 16(2), 83-96. Retrieved from

Ministry of National Education (MoNE). Board of Education (BoE). Curriculum Monitoring and Evaluation System. Retrieved November 03, 2018 from

MoNE BoE. Curriculum Monitoring and Evaluation System. Curricula. Retrieved from

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Orakci, S., Durnali, M. & Ozkan, O. (2018). Curriculum reforms in Turkey. O. Karnauhkova & B. Christiansen (Editors). In Economic and Geopolitical Perspectives of the commonwealth of independent states and Eurasia (pp. 225-251). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Ornstein, A. C., Pajak, E. F. & Ornstein, S. B. (2011). Contemporary issues in curriculum. Boston: Pearson.

Orogue, S.A. (1998). Enriching the tertiary curriculum for relevance and functionality. WCC Religion Forum Vol. 2.

Ozen, F. (2011). According to elementary schools principals’ and teachers’ opinions accountability as a tool for school development in education (Doctorate Thesis). Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/DELL/Downloads/302871.pdf

Parker, L. (2016). Religious environmental education? The new school curriculum in Indonesia. Environmental Education Research, 23(9), 1249–1272. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2016.1150425

Rubin, L. (1991). Educational Evaluation: Classic Works of Ralph W. Tyler. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23(2), 193-197. doi: 10.1080/0022027910230210

Sanal, M. (2016). Egitimin tarihi temelleri [Historical foundations of education] . M. Onur & M. Sanal (Editors). In Egitim bilimine giris [Introduction to education science]. Ankara: PegemAkademi.

Sarigoz, O. & Bolat, Y. (2018). Examination of the competencies of the pre-service teachers studying at the education faculties about the educational program literacy. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 10(9), 103-110. doi:  10.5897/IJEAPS2018.0566

Sen, A. (2018). Militarisation of citizenship education curriculum in Turkey. Journal of Peace Education, 1–26. doi: 10.1080/17400201.2018.1481019

Simsek, A. (2011). Ogretim tasarimi [Instructional design]. Ankara: Nobel.

Smith, K. L. & Southerland, S. A. (2007). Reforming practice or modifying reforms? Elementary teachers’ response to the tools of reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(3), 396-423. doi: 10.1002/tea.20165

Sogancilar, M. E. & Uzoglu, M. (2018). Determination of information levels and views on the recycling of secondary school students. The Journal of Social Science, 5(29), 91-108. doi:  10.16990/SOBIDER.4536

Solmaz, Y. (2004). A model for solving the problems of the urban, as the urban enstitute (Master thesis). Istanbul, Turkey: Yildiz Technical University / Institude of Science.

Sonmez, V. (2012). Program gelistirmede ogretmen elkitabi [Teacher manual for curriculum development]. Ankara: Ani.

Stone, J. C., Madaus, G. F., Stufflebeam, D., & Tyler, R. W. (1990). Educational evaluation: Classic works of Ralph W. Tyler. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12(1), 102-106. doi: 10.2307/1163590

Summerville, J. A. (2008). Critical factors affecting the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes: A Delphi study of the opinions of community college personnel. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 15(2), 109-119. Retrieved from  

Topal, T. (2007). The comparison of the primary school teachers’ classroom management behaviours and the relation of students’ success (Doctorate Thesis). Ankara, Turkey: Ankara University Institute of Educational Sciences.

Turkey Vocational Qualifications Authority. Turkey Qualifications Framework. Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

Ulutas, S. & Erman, M. (2011). Cumhuriyetin kurulusundan gunumuze Turkiye’de uygulanmis olan ilkokul, ortaokul ve ilkogretim okullari ogretim programlarinda olcme ve degerlendirme [From founding of the Republic of Turkey to today measurement and evaluation in primary, elementary and middle school curriculums]. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 2(1), 148-154. Retrieved from 

Varis, F. (1998). Egitim bilimine giris [Introduction to education science]. Ankara: Alkim.

Wiebe, E., Ho, C., Raubenheimer, D., Bullard, L., Joines,J., Miller, C. & Rouskas, G. (2009). AC2009-676 Computing across curricula: The view of industry leaders. Retrieved from

Yayci, L., Ilhan, T. & Sarikaya, Y. (2018). Mediation role of problem solving skills on the relationship between learned resourcefulness and loneliness. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(6), 1-14. doi:   10.5281/zenodo.1482924

Yildirim, A. & Simsek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel arastirma yontemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences]. Ankara: Seckin.

Yilmaz, F., Gocen, S. & Yardimci, R. (2017). The role of universities in the solution of social problems. Electronic Journal of Education Sciences, 6(12), 138-149. Retrived from