logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
mobile phone use metacognitive awareness academic achievement

The Relationship Between Mobile Phone Use, Metacognitive Awareness and Academic Achievement

Bulent Dos

Mobile phones are getting smarter and the usage through university students becoming more popular. University students using mobile phones for talking.


Mobile phones are getting smarter and the usage through university students becoming more popular. University students using mobile phones for talking, for texting message, for Internet search, for listening music, watching videos, playing games, using social media etc... Mobile phones are not accessory any more, they are integrated like our clothes. There are studies examining the effects of using mobile phones frequently. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mobile phone usage, satisfaction with life, academic achievement and metacognitive awareness. Metacognitive awareness inventory used to measure the awareness. Total GPA was used to measure the academic achievement and the mobile phone using time, the number of text messaging and callings are used for indicating the mobile phone usage. 250 total university students attended voluntarily to the study. The study carried out in private university in the southeast region of Turkey. The results indicated the usage of mobile phones are very frequent through university students. Many of the students are using mobile phones heavily. There was a positive relationship between mobile phone usage and academic achievement, also between mobile phone usage and metacognitive awareness.

Keywords: Mobile phone use, metacognitive awareness, academic achievement

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Akin, A., Abaci, R., & Cetin, B. (2007). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the metacognitive awareness inventory, Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 7(2), 671-678

Bagceci, B., Dos, B. & Sarica, R. (2011). Ilkogretim Ogrencilerinin Ustbilissel Farkindalik Duzeyleri Ile Akademik Basarisi Arasindaki Iliskinin Incelenmesi, Mustafa Kemal Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi, 8 (16), s.551-566

Chun, M. M., Golomb, J. D., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2011). A taxonomy of external and internal attention. Annual Review of Psychology, 62,73–101

Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.

Diener, E. (2008). Happiness: Unlocking the Mysteries of Psychological Wealth, Wiley-Blackwell

Dogan, T. & Totan, T. (2013). Psychometric properties of Turkish version of the Subjective Happiness Scale, The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being 2013, 1(1)

Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., and Kruger, J. (2003) Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12, 3, 83-87.

End, C. M.,  Worthman, S., Mathews, M. B. and Watterau, K. (2009). Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance, Teaching of Psychology
Vol. 37, Iss. 1, 2009

Flavell, J.H.(1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911

Greenspun, P (2005). Mobile Phone As Home Computer http://philip.greenspun.com/business/mobile-phone-as-home-computer

Jacobsen, W. C., & Forste, R. (2011). The wired generation: Academic and social outcomes of electronic media use among university students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(5), 275–280

Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Witt, E. A., & Zhao, Y. (2011). Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use as predictors of children’s body mass index (BMI), body weight, academic performance, and social and overall self-esteem. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 599–604

Junco, R., & Cotten, S. R. (2011). Perceived academic effects of instant messaging use. Computers & Education, 56(2), 370–378.

Kruger, J., and Dunning, D. (1999) Unskilled and unaware of it: How differences in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of  Personality and Social Psychology 77, 6, 1121-1134.

Lee, E. B. (2014). Facebook Use and Texting Among African American and Hispanic Teenagers An Implication for Academic Performance, Journal of Black Studies, March 2014 vol. 45 no. 2 83-101

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., Sanders, G. J., Rebold, M., & Gates, P. (2013). The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of US college students. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 79

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E. & Karpinski, A.C. (2014). The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and Satisfaction with Life in college students, Computers in Human Behavior 31 (2014) 343–350

Mayer, R.E. & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning, Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43–52

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164–172

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The Satisfaction with Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137–152

Rosen, L. D., Carrier, M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 948–958

Salehan, M. & Negahban, A. (2013). Social networking on smartphones: When mobile phones become addictive, Computers in Human Behavior 29 (2013) 2632–2639

Sánchez-Martínez, M., & Otero, A. (2009). Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain).Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 12, 131–137.

Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Life-satisfaction is a momentary judgment and a stable personality characteristic: The use of chronically accessible and stable sources. Journal of Personality, 70, 345–384.

Shin, D. C., & Johnson, D. M. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 5, 475–492

Tok. H. ,Ozgan. H., Dos, B. (2010). Assessing Metacognitve Awareness and Learning Strategies as Positive Predictors for Success in a Distance Learning  Class, Mustafa Kemal Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi, Cilt/Volume: 7 Sayi/Issue: 14, s. 127 – 137.

Walsh, J. L., Fielder, R. L., Carey, K.B. & Carey, M.P. (2013). Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes Results From a Longitudinal Cohort Study, Emerging Adulthood, September 2013 vol. 1 no. 3 219-232

Wood, E., Zivcakova, L., Gentile, P., Archer, K., De Pasquale, D., & Nosko, A. (2012). Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning. Computers & Education, 58, 365–374

Yetim, U. (1993). Kisisel projelerin organizasyonu ve oruntusu acisindan yasam doyumu. [In Turkish: The pattern of organization and life satisfaction in terms of personal projects]. Unpublished doctorate dissertation. Ege University, Institute of Social Science, Izmir.