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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

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Concepts of Plants Held by Young Brazilian Children: An Exploratory Study

plant conception preschool and primary school pupils mental model drawings

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Claudete Rosa Cosmo , Bernadete Rocha da Silva , Sue Dale Tunnicliffe


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Children from southern and northern Brazil have a basic knowledge of plants, which they observe during their everyday life. Children ages between 3 to 10 years old (kindergarten & primary school), but the majority of them in the age group of 4-5 (total 145) were asked to draw what they think is a plant (total sample=332). Afterwards, a equal number of boys and girls randomly chosen were interviewed individually (mix ability) to list plants they said they knew and where they had seen them. Then they were asked to give exemplars of the local plants which they had seen. These data from the exploratory study show that pupils are in touch with their environment and recognize plants that are part of it. The everyday experiences of these children in school and out of school, at home and in leisure activities with family and friends, contribute to their knowledge about plants and such knowledge is complemented in the preschool and primary school classes by appropriate teaching. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.3.105
Pages: 105-117
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The purpose of the research is to evaluate pre-service preschool teachers' knowledge about environment by analyzing their drawings about it. 70 first grade, 99 second grade, 56 third grade and 44 fourth grade, with a total of 269 students have been evaluated in this research. This qualitative research was made with social structuralism vision. The data used in this research were gathered by draw and tell conversation technique, where pre-service teachers were asked to draw the first thing when they think about environment and explain it. When analyzing the data, both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used. After analyzing collected data, it is seen that most used object in drawings are tree, human, house and sun, respectively. 4 themes and 12 sub-categories under these themes are detected by pre-service teachers' drawings. The most drawn theme by pre-service teachers is Theme 3: a place which affected/designed by third persons, while the least drawn is Theme 4: a place where humans, animals and plants lives together. 10 categories have seen after analyzing explanations of the drawing. Most explanation seen in the places that supports human life category. Independent variables of the research (sex and grade level) and themes and explanations of the drawings are statically and meaningfully related to each other. The most significant result of this research is that pre-service preschool teachers have human-centric system of thought about environment.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.2.57
Pages: 57-69
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761
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1141
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Personal connections to agriculture have decreased considerably in Finland during the last few decades due to struc-tural changes in agriculture. In this study, we will elucidate the understanding and conception of agriculture amongst urban pupils who have grown up during the 21st century. The research strategy consists of intervention in form of a farm visit, with pre- and post-assessment. The methods for collecting data were drawings for gaining a diversified un-derstanding of how pupils understand, experience and conceptualise agriculture. The drawings were analysed by visual content analysis. In addition, interviews, analysed by inductive content analysis method, were used to clarify the re-sults. Qualities of farms as authentic learning environments are defined and studied The study revealed that many pupils had irrational conceptions of agriculture before the farm visit (38 %), but decreased significantly after the visit. One of the explaining factors for these irrational conceptions was considered to be the influence of media sources. Farms as educational learning environments were able to correct pupils’ false conceptions. A realistic image of agriculture is of significant value for becoming an aware and responsible consumer as well as choosing a career in agriculture.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.1.1
Pages: 1-13
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1864
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2141
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6

Mental Models of School for Preschool Children

mental model pre-school child drawing picture school

A. Oguzhan Kildan , Mehmet Altan Kurnaz , Berat Ahi


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The aim of this study was to determine mental models of 334 pre-school children concerning school. Children in the city center of Kastamonu in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey were included. Content analysis was conducted on pictures drawn by the children, and the models were split into two groups, scientific and nonscientific. The scientific group was split into three types; the nonscientific group, into four. About 40% of the children had a scientificbased school perception, while 60% were nonscientific. No significant difference was found between the mental models of females and males. Few studies have investigated mental models, so this study fills a gap, but further studies would aid the understanding of the relevant pedagogic architecture.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.2.97
Pages: 97-105
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1220
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3

How In-Service Teachers Perceive Neuroscience as Connected to Education: An Exploratory Study

teaching learning educational neuroscience teachers

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Flavio Kulevicz Bartoszeck


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This exploratory study is concerned about the extent to which a sample of 163 pre-school, primary and secondary Brazilian school teachers, expressed their opinion on how neuroscience might help their teaching and pupils´ learning. Evaluation instruments for Brazilian pupils were analysed. Two questionnaires were completed by the teachers. Results of a quantitative analysis indicated that in general teachers believe that neuroscience may contribute to the teaching and learning of their subject matter. An outline for an elective neuroscience and education course is presented. Educational implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.4.301
Pages: 301-319
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1679
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10

Brazilian Primary and Secondary School Pupils´ Perception of Science and Scientists

scientist image science questionnaire drawings pupils

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Flavio Kulevicz Bartoszeck


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The purpose of this study is to understand in an exploratory way pupils´ perception of science and the image of scientists at primary and secondary school levels. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire and a drawing representing pupils´ depiction what scientists do during their working hours. A questionnaire anchored on a Likert scale was filled by 204 primary and 229 secondary school children. Pupils from this sample considered science classes enjoyable, helped to understand issues covered by media, that science is a body of knowledge whose goal is to make life more comfortable to people. A total of 433 drawings were collected at 3 urban and 1 rural schools. Drawings illustrated scientists in scientific activity, mainly working alone, wearing lab coat and eyeglasses. Scientific specialization included chemists, biologists and a few technologist and astronomers. Educational implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.29
Pages: 29-40
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440
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1109
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4

What do Brazilian School Children Know about Birds in Their Country?

children birds mental model drawings

Amauri B. Bartoszeck , Waldineia Vandrovieski , Vanessa Tratch , Franciane Czelusniak , Sue Dale Tunnicliffe


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Children have a basic knowledge of birds that they observe during their everyday life either in their garden, other gardens, round the house, walking in the local area or in the yard on school gardens. A total of 515 children, aged 3 to 16 (249 girls and 266 boys) enrolled in southern Brazilian public preschools, primary school and secondary schools, were invited to participate in this exploratory study. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 206 pupils asking to name which birds they knew, where they had seen these birds, which ones live around home, which they had seen further away. Additionally, they were asked which birds they knew from a list and the source of this knowledge where they had learned about the birds. They were asked to draw on a sheet of paper a representation of what the word “bird” meant to them. Results show the importance of everyday observations rather than beyond formal education in the children knowledge. Children from the earliest years notice birds in their everyday lives, and build a bank of knowledge, gradually acquiring an understanding of adaptation to a variety of habitats. Children notice birds in their lives to differing extent and sources according to the culture in which they are immersed. Experiences of seeing or finding out about birds are encapsulated for many children in the form of narratives and contribute to their mental models of birds and their habitats on which they will drew in formal science later (Biology and Environmental Education). Educational implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.485
Pages: 485-499
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399
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894
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6

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the meanings assigned by pre-service teachers to the wastepaper basket and waste (crumpled) papers in their drawings of a scientist. The study was carried out with 220 pre-service teachers during the 2015-2016 academic years. A phenomenological research method was used. First, the pre-service teachers were administered the ‘Draw-A-Scientist Test’ in order to identify their images of a scientist and then they were asked to describe and explain the scientist they drew. And a semi-structured interview was performed with the 34 pre-service teachers who included a wastepaper basket and waste paper in their drawings in order to identify the meanings assigned to the wastepaper and wastepaper basket by these teachers. The data were analysed by using content analysis. The results of the analysis showed that with these figures the pre-service teachers revealed their belief that when scientists conduct research, they follow a confirmatory experimental process in a similar manner to the way school science experiments. Based on these results, it can be suggested in the analysis of the drawings that waste paper and wastepaper baskets can be regarded as indicators of the stereotypical image of scientists and of the scientific method they use.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.715
Pages: 715-730
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296
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934
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The aim of this study is to present pre-service biology teachers with reading texts about the research of Van Helmont and Joseph Priestley relate to the subject of photosynthesis, for their familiarization with the processual and contextual aspects of science and their understanding of the nature of science, and to reveal the extent to which these texts contribute to the teacher candidates. The study was carried out by “action research method”.  The sample consisted of 66 biology pre-service teachers studying at Karadeniz Technical University between the years of 2016 to 2018. In this study, two separate reading texts were prepared in order to increase pre-service teachers’ processual and contextual understanding, and after the teacher candidates had read the texts, they were asked to answer the related questions. Percentage and frequency values were determined by grouping the answers as “correct, partially correct, incorrect and unanswered”. The fact that in this study, only 47% of the pre-service teachers were able to form a correct hypothesis means that their skills in this regard are in need of development. Candidates experienced some difficulty in interpreting statements that were not given explicitly in the text. The candidates' level of critical thinking is at a good level. It has been determined that they have post-modern view as epistemological belief. There is a need for designing instructional materials covering conceptual, processual, contextual dimensions of science in different subjects at university level and presenting them to biology teachers in book format.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.633
Pages: 633-646
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431
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1284
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0

Reflections of Fears of Children to Drawings

fears drawing 6 -10 years old children colors

Ertugrul Talu


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The purpose of this study is to examine the fears of children who are 6-10 years old via drawings. In this study, phenomenology research design which is among qualitative research methods was used. The study group of the study consisted of 314 children aged between 6 and 10 years in three primary schools in Kirsehir city center in 2017-2018 academic year. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed by using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, the drawings were collected under 6 categories according to their similar characteristics .When the drawings obtained from the children were classified, it was seen that the most fear is related to the category of animals, while the least fear is related to the drawings of the category of fears related to medical. In addition, children preferred to use black, red, blue, yellow and green colors in their fear themed drawings.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.763
Pages: 763-779
cloud_download 972
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972
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1050
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6

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4

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“Non-existent Animal” test, which is projective in nature, has been used as an individual recognition technique in many countries, especially in Russia. There are a number of important differences that distinguish “Non-existent Animal” Test from other similar tests. The most important one is that the “thing” to be drawn is something that does not exist. Drawing something that does not exist is different from drawing something that exists. S/he could be more cooperative due to lack of anxiety for not being able to make the picture similar to anything. Another difference is that it is not restrictive. In this study, pictures drawn by 154 university students for the “Non-existent Animal” projective test were examined. The pictures drawn by the participants were evaluated by the researcher in light of some keys of the Non-existent Animal Test. These keys were determined as; the originality of the drawn picture; the general status of the lines; the status of the drawn animal's organs such as head, eyes, ears, feet, arms, wings, thorns, antennae; and the animal's way of life. Results showed that the pictures drawn by the males and females were different from each other in many aspects.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1115
Pages: 1115-1125
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711
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1180
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0

The Effect of Negative Peace in Mind to Aggressive Behavior of Students in Indonesia

aggressive behavior peace education peace of mind

Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra , Agus Supriyanto , Prima Suci Rohmadheny , Budi Astuti , Yulia Ayriza , Sofwan Adiputra


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This ex-post facto research aims to identify the negative influence of peace of mind on students' aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior of students has become a problem that has not been alleviated to the maximum and is increasingly complex. One model of education that seeks to build students' peace of mind is the peace education model. The use of this educational model can suppress the urge of students to show aggressive behavior. The research data was collected using the peace of mind scale (PoMS) and aggressive behavior scale (ABS). The research sample was taken using cluster random technique with a total of 1263 students coming from western part of Indonesia (East Java, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and Lampung), the central part of Indonesia (West Nusa Tenggara and Central Sulawesi), and the eastern part of Indonesia (North Maluku). Data in this study were analyzed using simple linear regression. The results of the analysis of the study concluded that negative peace of mind has an effect of 62.9% on aggressive behavior committed by students. This study is recommended for future researchers to develop peaceful thinking training programs to reduce students' aggressive behavior.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.485
Pages: 485-496
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1076
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781
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Professional teaching competence is significantly influenced by beliefs about teaching and learning. Prospective teachers start their teacher training with quite persistent beliefs about learning processes. These beliefs are mainly influenced by the way they experienced their own lessons as a student at school. Previous biology lessons at school might be linked to the imagined biology lessons of prospective teachers. We interpret these future lessons as a representation of their beliefs about teaching and learning. The present study investigated how prospective teachers remembered their previous biology lessons as well as how they imagine the lessons they will conduct in the future. The drawings of 181 prospective biology teachers in Germany (Mage = 22.1; SD = 3.6; 64.1 % female) were analyzed using the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test Checklist (DASTT-C). Results of the study indicate that the lessons they experienced were mainly teacher-centered, whereas the lessons they imagined were mainly student-centered. Results of a chi-square-test indicate that there is no connection between these two drawings of biology lessons. This suggests that experiences from one’s own schooling may have no connection with the way prospective teachers would like to teach in the future. The results of this study might be used as a basis for further studies examining the development of prospective biology teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.799
Pages: 799-811
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534
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717
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3

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2

Enhancing Scientific Discovery Learning by Just-in-Time Prompts in a Simulation-Assisted Inquiry Environment

guidance inquiry learning prompts simulation

Shiva Hajian , Misha Jain , Arita L. Liu , Teeba Obaid , Mari Fukuda , Philip H. Winne , John C. Nesbit


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We investigated the effects of just-in-time guidance at various stages of inquiry learning by novice learners. Thirteen participants, randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 8) or control (n = 5) group, were observed as they learned about DC electric circuits using a web-based simulation. Just-in-time instructional prompts to observe, predict, explain, systematically test, collect evidence, and generate rules were strongly associated with diagnosing and correcting misconceptions, and constructing correct scientific concepts. Students’ repeated use of predictions, systematic testing, and evidence-coordinated reasoning often led to formulating new principles, generalizing from observed patterns, verifying comprehension, and experiencing “Aha!” moments. Just-in-time prompts helped learners manage embedded cognitive challenges in inquiry tasks, achieve a comprehensive understanding of the model represented in the simulation, and show significantly higher knowledge gain. Just-in-time prompts also promoted rejection of incorrect models of inquiry and construction of robust scientific mental models. The results suggest ways of customizing guidance to promote scientific learning within simulation environments.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.989
Pages: 989-1007
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529
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708
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6

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4

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It should be noted that learning outcomes are not students’ only achievement; attitude is also the main output in learning. This research explores students’ attitudes toward science learning based on gender and the grade level of schools in Aceh, Indonesia. The participants are 1,023 students from the sixth grade of primary schools and the eighth grade of secondary schools. The total sample includes 16 schools spread across the province. The data have been collected using TOSRA. By using the Likert scale, this questionnaire is useful for obtaining descriptions of the students’ attitudes and assigning scores for a certain group of participants. Based on gender, the results show females reflect more positive attitudes toward science than male students do. According to the grade level of the schools, the data reflect the equality of students’ attitudes toward science between primary and secondary schools. Nevertheless, when primary school students enter secondary school, the majority of students enjoy learning science less. This fact is meaningful feedback for science teachers. This result supports the scholars seeking ways to avoid the gender gap in learning activities. Pedagogical implications are also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.599
Pages: 599-608
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1787
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1586
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2

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5

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This research aims to determine second-year university students’ understanding in interpreting and representing fractions. A set of fraction tests was given to students through two direct learning interventions. An unstructured interview was used as an instrument to obtain explanations and confirmations from the purposive participants. A total of 112 student teachers of primary teacher education program at two private universities in Indonesia were involved in this research. A qualitative method with a holistic type case study design was used in this research. The results indicate that a significant percentage of the participants could not correctly interpret and represent fractions. In terms of interpretation, it is found how language could obscure the misunderstanding of fractions. Then, the idea of a fraction as part of a whole is the most widely used in giving meaning to a fraction compared to the other four interpretations, but with limited understanding. Regarding data representation, many participants failed to provide a meaningful illustration showing the improper fraction and mix number compared to the proper fraction. Improvement of fraction teaching at universities - particularly in primary teacher education programs - is needed so that students get the opportunity to develop and improve their knowledge profoundly. We discuss implications for teaching fractions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1747
Pages: 1747-1762
cloud_download 383
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383
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560
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2

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0

The Role of Hemispheric Preference in Student Misconceptions in Biology

biology concepts hemispheric preference intuitive reasoning right hemisphere students’ misconceptions

Nektarios Lagoudakis , Filippos Vlachos , Vasilia Christidou , Denis Vavougios , Marianthi Batsila


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The various intuitive reasoning types in many cases comprise the core of students’ misconceptions about concepts, procedures and phenomena that pertain to natural sciences. Some researchers support the existence of a relatively closer connection between the right hemisphere and intuitive thought, mainly due to a notably closer relation of individual intuitive cognitive processes with specific right hemisphere regions. It has been suggested that individuals show a different preference in making use of each hemisphere’s cognitive capacity, a tendency which has been termed Hemisphericity or Hemisphere Preference. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between hemispheric preference and students’ misconceptions. A correlational explanatory research approach was implemented involving 100 seventh grade students from a public secondary school. Participants completed a hemispheric preference test and a misconceptions documentation tool. The results revealed that there wasn’t any differentiation in the mean score of misconceptions among the students with right hemispheric dominance and those with left hemispheric dominance. These findings imply a number of things: (a) the potential types of intuitive processes, that might be activated by the students, in interpreting the biology procedures and phenomena and their total resultant effect on students’ answers, probably do not have any deep connection with the right hemisphere; (b) it is also possible that students might use reflective and analytic thought more frequently than we would have expected.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.739
Pages: 739-747
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284
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347
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Developing Creative Thinking in Preschool Children: A Comprehensive Review of Innovative

comprehensive review creative thinking early childhood

Novita Eka Nurjanah , Elindra Yetti , Mohamad Syarif Sumantri


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<p style="text-align:justify">The ability to think creatively has a vital role in the development of preschool children. This research provides a comprehensive review of innovative approaches and strategies for developing creative thinking in preschool children based on current trends and methodologies used in educational settings. This research shows three significant areas: (a) creative thinking skills in preschool children, (b) factors influencing creative thinking skills in depth, and (c) innovative strategies and approaches to stimulate creative thinking abilities in preschool children. This research uses a literature study method assisted by the publish perish application to find reference sources related to creative thinking abilities in preschool children. Studies show that creative thinking abilities in preschool children enable them to find innovative solutions, help them adapt to challenges, foster self-confidence and courage, and enrich their experience and knowledge of the world around them. Meanwhile, preschool children&#39;s creative thinking abilities are influenced by collaboration from the external environment (parents, teachers, and society); providing support and examples for children to develop and stimulate their creative thinking skills is very important.</p>

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1303
Pages: 1303-1319
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158
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