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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

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Field Dependency and Performance in Mathematics

field dependency working memory mathematics education

Onyebuchi Onwumere , Norman Reid


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Mathematics is an important school subject but one which often poses problems for learners. It has been found that learners do not possess the cognitive capacity to handle understanding procedures, representations, concepts, and applications at the same time. while the extent of field dependency may hold the key to one way by which the working memory can be used more efficiently. This study aims to explore the concept of field dependency which may offer a way forward in reducing the cognitive demands of finite working memory capacity, thus enabling higher performance to be attained. Age and gender were considered. With a sample of 120 secondary school students, the importance of working memory in relation to mathematics performance was confirmed (r = 0.55 ). The extent of field dependency was measured with a larger sample of 547, drawn from five age groups. The outcomes were related to the performance in mathematics examinations, a correlation of 0.32 being obtained overall, with every age group showing positive significant correlations. In this, the more field independent perform much better. The outcomes are interpreted in terms of the increased efficiency in the use of finite working memory capacity resources. It was found that students become more field independent with age but the rate of growth of independence declines with age. Girls tended to be slightly more field-independent than boys, perhaps reflecting maturity or their greater commitment during their years of adolescence. The findings are interpreted in terms of the way the brain processes information and the implications for mathematics education are discussed briefly.

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10.12973/eu-jer.3.1.43
Pages: 43-57
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1078
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1393
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10

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Analysis of principles knowledge representation in information systems led to the necessity of improving the structuring knowledge. It is caused by the development of software component and new possibilities of information technologies. The article combines methodological aspects of structuring knowledge and effective usage of information resources which are designed for the scientific and methodological study of practical recommendations in Digital learning implementation. It is shown at the paper that one of the most important problems, which face the processing of knowledge or construction systems, is knowledge representation. The main idea of the paper is increasing the efficiency at the university learning process on the basis of a possible applications and rational structuring knowledge. The proposed concept of using information resources of Digital Learning is based on the idea of using the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity, hierarchy, typing, concurrency preservation and implementation in such stages of this process as algorithmic support of knowledge structuring and structured transfer of knowledge to students. The topic of the article is unique as we try to see Digital learning in multidisciplinary aspects: education, mathematics, statistics. The article combines a theoretical approach to structuring knowledge that is based on the integrated usage of fuzzy semantic network, theory of predicates, Boolean functions, theory of complexity of network structures and practical aspects and ways of construction Digital Learning Systems at the University.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.261
Pages: 261-267
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1202
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1330
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4

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This study was conducted to analyze (a) the suitability of National Examination (UN) and national-based school examination (USBN) implementation, which has been running on the current guidelines and efforts to improve students’ achievements, (b) the final examination system that is relevant in measuring student competency achievement based on graduate competence standard. It employed descriptive quantitative evaluation by using CIPP (context, input, process of implementation and product) evaluation model. Participants included the head of the Education and Culture Department, Ministry of Religion, Principals / Madrasas, teachers, and students. To collect the data, questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, and documentaries were undertaken. Additionally, the data analysis technique used quantitative and qualitative descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that (1) implementation of the UN and USBN, which has been ongoing, is in accordance with the standard operating procedure (SOP) that has been established by the board of national education standard (BNSP), (2) implementation of UN and USBN can be used to improve performance (3) the final examination system that is able to measure achievement of graduates' competency on certain subjects nationally by referring to the Graduate Competency Standard is computer-based national examination (UNBK). The concluding remarks are an attempt to contribute to the growth of future research in the field of UN and USBN implementation in Indonesia.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.827
Pages: 827-837
cloud_download 1913
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1913
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1182
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5

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4

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As we have seen from the current COVID-19 pandemic, misconceptions concerning viruses can lead to disease spread and panic. Therefore, it is imperative to determine misconceptions held concerning epidemics and pandemics. One virus that warrants study of misconceptions, albeit given limited attention in the West, is the Ebola virus. An assessment of college students’ knowledge and misconceptions about the Ebola virus was created and validated using data from 203 non-science majors at a Midwestern United States university. The data were analyzed using both classical and Rasch measurement methods to make a case for the validity of the assessment and to explore students’ misconceptions. The assessment was shown to be a valid and useful measure for students’ knowledge and misconceptions concerning Ebola. Integrating a confidence scale into students’ responses made the scale more reliable and assisted in identifying students’ tenacious misconceptions. Students displayed multiple misconceptions about viruses, including confusion between the characteristics of viruses and prokaryotes.  Students also displayed misconceptions about Ebola itself, including the overestimation of the number of Ebola strains and the number of patients who experience massive blood loss, misunderstandings about the incubation period, and overestimation of the mortality in comparison to other diseases like Influenza and Anthrax. This assessment can be used as a starting point in future studies to determine what misconceptions people have about Ebola and which types of educational and behavioral interventions need to be undertaken.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.579
Pages: 579-602
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454
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875
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2

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2

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In the last decade, learning from computer-supported collaborative technologies has been combined with social media (SM) and this has gotten a lot of attention. Also, there is a growing body of literature that suggests that SM is gaining a lot of attention because it has the perceived pedagogical affordances that could be used as a potential tool for teaching and learning. These perceived pedagogical affordances allow people to interact, communicate, collaborate and share resources among others. Most of the studies published on SM in education have focused on higher education (colleges and universities) with a relatively small body of literature on secondary education. Despite the wide use of SM in education, its benefits are still not clear across studies. We conducted a systematic literature review using the EBSCOhost database. Screening of abstracts and full texts resulted in the selection of 10 papers for the review. Seven approaches to using SM in learning in high schools have been identified: (1) interaction, (2) information dissemination, (3) communication, (4) collaboration, (5) teaching, learning, and resource sharing, (6) socialization, and (7) entertainment. Most of the articles claimed that the educational use of SM has a strong positive effect on social skills, but the evidence presented was rather weak. Subject-specific outcomes were not in focus in using SM in education. All studies followed a constructivist philosophical perspective. Based on this we provide a theory-based scenario for using SM in learning social skills and subject-specific outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.889
Pages: 889-903
cloud_download 1945
visibility 1923
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1945
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1923
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16

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17

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This research has the purpose to explore implementation contextual character education in Senior High School in Buli village, East Halmahera Regency, Eastern Indonesia, and Remote Indigenous Community (RIC) role in addressing student behavior to improve education quality in that area. Sources of data from this qualitative research are teachers, students, village leader, and religious leaders Focus of the research: (1) socioeconomic conditions in families who live in the remote areas regarding adolescent character; (2) the influence of mobile phones and the internet; (3) the role of customary leader in the control of norms in adolescents; (4) good habits in schools as an effort to implement the character education program of adolescents in schools. The results of this study are: (1) the economic condition of the family causes the child does not get the quality of attention and quality of time. Parents are preoccupied with working to sustain life, so schools are considered a burden because of school fees; (2) social media causes everyone to access all information in their own way and the lack of social control causes the use of social media to influence the pattern of relations and communication patterns; (3) the role of RIC can be optimal if supported by members who have better education, and awareness to promote education in their village; (4) good habituation can arise if the school implements positive discipline and commitment to carry out character education in accordance with local wisdom and local culture.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1009
Pages: 1009-1023
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1060
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1475
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32

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26

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Previous research suggests that non-cognitive factors play an important role in promoting success at school and beyond, aligning with the multifaceted goals of education. Enhancing students’ attitudes to learning in school is expected to have positive impacts on various schooling outcomes. To date, very few studies have focused on measuring and understanding students’ attitude to the arts. This study aims to address a gap in current research in this area by introducing instruments designed to measure attitude to dance, drama, music and visual arts. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance analyses are employed to examine the factorial validity and measurement equivalence of the scales of attitude to the arts disciplines for different ethnic groups in New Zealand. Findings support the utility of the scales as valid measures of attitude to dance, drama, music and visual arts. Noticeable differences are reported among New Zealand European, Maori, Pasifika and Asian students regarding their attitudes to dance, drama, music and visual arts.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1177
Pages: 1177-1187
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431
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737
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2

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2

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Covid-19 has accelerated the speed of technocratic transformation in teaching and learning. Previous researches on whether technology enhances students’ motivation towards learning or burdens them with additional layer of anxiety in learning the nitty gritty of technology itself have mixed results. The purpose of this study was to explore early undergraduate students’ beliefs about learning mathematics with technology. These research participants were first-year female undergraduate students in a public university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study comprised of phase one with qualitative task-based interviews with four female first-year undergraduate students. Phase two included a quantitative belief survey with a sample of 62 students from the same institution. I constructed four major belief categories from the iterative process of interview data analysis– technology for computing and graphing, technology for speed and accuracy, technology for a short-cut but not for meaning, and affective aspects of beliefs. The quantitative survey result demonstrated that a majority of participants (about 75.8%) were found to be using some kinds of technological tools while learning mathematics. About 90% of them reported using a calculator while learning mathematics. A majority of participants (54.9%) believed that technology helps them in learning mathematics, and about 50% of them also believed that the use of technology improves their learning of mathematics.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1235
Pages: 1235-1255
cloud_download 423
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423
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664
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4

Scopus
2

Flipped Classroom Educational Model (2010-2019): A Bibliometric Study

flipped classroom educational model bibliometric study publication trend flipped classroom mapping

J. Julia , Nurul Afrianti , Kamal Ahmed Soomro , Tedi Supriyadi , Dewi Dolifah , I. Isrokatun , E. Erhamwilda , Dedah Ningrum


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Nowadays, teaching and learning activity employing the flipped classroom model has an important position in the process of providing education. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing articles examining the flipped classroom model that has been published in several reputable international journals issued in the 2010-2019 timeframe, which was conducted using bibliometric studies. The research was conducted using a 4-stages systematic mapping method: (1) searching for articles using the Publish or Perish application in the Scopus database, (2) classifying the articles for the bibliometric analysis, (3) checking and completing the metadata of those articles, and (4) conducting bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer application. The bibliometric analysis produced seven findings, as follows: (1) the trend of flipped classroom publications continued to increase from 2013-2019; (2) the ten most contributive journals has published 88 articles by 2019; (3) the ten most cited articles has produced 1,155 citations; (4) the three highest order of author keywords most widely used in flipped classroom articles were flipped classroom, active learning, and blended learning; (5) author collaboration with strong links only occurred in 21 authors through one document; (6) institutional collaboration with strong links formed through 28 collaborating institutions; and (7) state statistics were formed into three clusters and spread across various countries through contributions from authors who were in charge of 456 institutions. The flipped classroom model can be concluded as an educational model that is currently popular among researchers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1377
Pages: 1377-1392
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2092
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2765
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21

Scopus
26

The Generational Digital Gap within Dual Vocational Education and Training Teachers

icts skills digital resources in teaching generational digital divide dual training

Jesús Sanchez-Prieto , Juan Manuel Trujillo-Torres , Melchor Gómez-García , Gerardo Gómez-García


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In our current society, Digital Competence is an essential and basic competence for teachers. The students need trained teachers who know how to use Information and communication technologies (ICTs) and develop them into pedagogy. However, some of them do not know how. This phenomena is called “The generational digital divide”, which occurs when teachers do not have sufficient digital or technological skills or do not adapt to them. This article aims to determine whether the age of teachers has an influence on their knowledge about Information and Communication Technologies. The objective is to detect if there really exists a digital gap between generations, specifically in Dual Vocational Education Training, a kind of education which has been growing in the recent years. To do so, a study with a quantitative and descriptive method has been carried out, with the participation of 1.568 teachers of this training modality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. The data were extracted by means of a questionnaire to measure the level of digital teaching competence in Dual Vocational Education and Training schools. The results showed that the level of digital competence shown was medium to low across all dimensions. With regard to the age factor, only the problem-solving dimension was found to be age-dependent.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1557
Pages: 1557-1567
cloud_download 723
visibility 1043
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723
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1043
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9

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9

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This research aimed at analyzing the influence of ‘Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning’ model assisted by realia media, in which it was to improve the scientific literacy and critical thinking skill of primary school students, especially for the material of energy. This quasi-experiment research used single factor independent groups design. The research sample of this research were fourth grade students of SD Inpres Oeba 2 Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, of which students were in the academic year of 2019/2020. The technique of sample collection was carried out purposive sampling for 2 classes. The IVA class was used as the experimental class (POGIL model assisted by the realia media), in which it consisted of 30 students and the IVB class was used as the control class (expository learning) that consisted of 28 students. The learning was carried out in four meetings. The data of scientific literacy and the results test of critical thinking were collected by means of objective test on the energy material. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data using significance level of 0.05. The results indicate that (1) There is a significant difference between the students’ scientific literacy who gain the POGIL learning assisted by the realia media and the students’ scientific literacy who get the expository learning; and (2) There is a significant difference between the critical thinking of students who get POGIL learning assisted by realia media and the students who get the expository learning. It can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the scientific literacy and the students’ critical thinking taught by the POGIL learning that assisted by realia media to the students who use expository learning. Since there is a significant difference, it means that the POGIL learning assisted by realia media has an influence on the students' scientific literacy and critical thinking.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1635
Pages: 1635-1647
cloud_download 1349
visibility 1421
18
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1349
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1421
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18

Scopus
10

The Effects of MANSA Historical Board Game toward the Students’ Creativity and Learning Outcomes on Historical Subjects

board game creativity history learning outcomes project-based learning

Ameliasari Tauresia Kesuma , Harun , Himawan Putranta , Jefri Mailool , Hanif Cahyo Adi Kistoro


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The constraints of history learning in the Indonesia curriculum are the weekly time is only one hour of lessons and the material is quite dense, if delivered with an explanation and discussion the time is not enough. Therefore, it was sought how to get all material delivered and students not bored. Learning this model is done to condition students as a center of learning, increase creativity and learning outcomes, the project undertaken is called the MANSA Historical board game (MANSA is taken from the abbreviation of our school name). In this case, students are asked to create, design their own board game on a different topic for each group. This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes and creativity between the control class and the experimental class of students at senior high schools in Salatiga, Indonesia. The research model used is quasi-experimental. The respondents of the research were 35 students in the experimental class and 35 students in the control class, who had the same homogeneity in creativity and learning outcomes. The results showed that the MANSA Historical board game had a significant effect on creativity and student learning outcomes. It is proven that creativity and student-learning outcomes can be increased. As shown by the mean different test results, there was a difference in the creativity of 0.593 and a learning outcome of 4.224 between the control class and the experimental class before and after treatment. The results showed a difference in learning outcomes between the control class and the experimental class. The average learning outcomes of the experimental class are higher than the average learning outcomes of the control class, as well as student creativity.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1689
Pages: 1689-1700
cloud_download 887
visibility 956
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887
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956
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7

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4

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A positive learning environment can be achieved if all the school members follow the principal's learning process. The paper aims to study and analyze the principal's implementation of innovation and entrepreneurial leadership in creating a learning environment. The research is conducted qualitatively through a case study. The research subjects were determined using purposive sampling, while the data were collected through interviews, observation, and documentation study. The data were then analyzed descriptively qualitatively using the Atlas.ti software. The results show that the principal has implemented the entrepreneurial leadership employing two main principles to create a learning environment. First, the principal regulates organizational growth through optimization, communication, motivation, monitoring, controlling, role model, and empowerment. The principal makes some innovation through several steps: vision building, staff development, and restructuring. This kind of leadership can create a comfortable and fun learning environment. As a result, all school members can follow the learning process and create innovative products, as well as making some progress in academic and non-academic achievements. The research findings imply a recommendation for the school's program in that a principal's entrepreneurial and innovative leadership is one of the critical factors in learning.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.63
Pages: 63-74
cloud_download 957
visibility 1245
13
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957
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1245
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13

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12

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Recently, Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) has caused a considerable interest in the school community due to the wide-scale lockdown brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The curriculum's alteration necessitated a call to explore mechanisms for effective remote instruction delivery—including parental involvement. This research determined the psychometric properties of the "Strategies for Parental Involvement during Emergency Remote Teaching - Scale (SPIERT-S). The tool assesses the strategies used by teachers to facilitate parental involvement during ERT. Through a thorough literature review, 22 items about home and school collaboration and ERT were initially developed. Evidence related to content validity was established through two-round expert consultation, while data related to construct validity were gathered through factor analyses. The content validity analysis resulted in the deletion of four (4) items; hence, 18 items were retained. A three-factor structure was yielded from Exploratory Factor Analysis (parents as facilitators of learning, parents as sources of information, and parents as collaborators), and a total of 15 items were retained. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable level of the goodness-of-fit indices measured. The internal consistency of the factors and the whole scale showed excellent reliability. The results suggest that the SPIERT-S has good, valid, and reliable psychometric qualities and can be used to examine the strategies for parental involvement that teachers utilize during emergency remote teaching. Recommendations and limitations of the study are discussed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.427
Pages: 427-439
cloud_download 596
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596
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706
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6

Scopus
5

The Effect of Negative Peace in Mind to Aggressive Behavior of Students in Indonesia

aggressive behavior peace education peace of mind

Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra , Agus Supriyanto , Prima Suci Rohmadheny , Budi Astuti , Yulia Ayriza , Sofwan Adiputra


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This ex-post facto research aims to identify the negative influence of peace of mind on students' aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior of students has become a problem that has not been alleviated to the maximum and is increasingly complex. One model of education that seeks to build students' peace of mind is the peace education model. The use of this educational model can suppress the urge of students to show aggressive behavior. The research data was collected using the peace of mind scale (PoMS) and aggressive behavior scale (ABS). The research sample was taken using cluster random technique with a total of 1263 students coming from western part of Indonesia (East Java, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and Lampung), the central part of Indonesia (West Nusa Tenggara and Central Sulawesi), and the eastern part of Indonesia (North Maluku). Data in this study were analyzed using simple linear regression. The results of the analysis of the study concluded that negative peace of mind has an effect of 62.9% on aggressive behavior committed by students. This study is recommended for future researchers to develop peaceful thinking training programs to reduce students' aggressive behavior.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.485
Pages: 485-496
cloud_download 1091
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1091
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875
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0

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This study aimed to analyze the critical thinking skills of students in learning of environmental change material using e-learning madrasah. This study used explanatory sequential design by mixed-methods experiment. The data were collected by interviewing, observing, and essay testing that have indicators modified from critical thinking skills by Watson-Glaser, Facione, and Ennis. There were 67 participants in this study as 7th grade student at a junior high school in Sleman district. Quantitative data analyzed by determining average score and standard deviations and, qualitative data analyzed from interviews and observation. Quantitative analysis showed that there were 3 levels of student’s critical thinking skills which were 14 students (20.90%) in the high category, 38 students (56.72%) in the middle category, and 15 students (22.38%) in the low category. Qualitative analysis indicated learning model made students to learn actively, independently, and enthusiastically looking for several sources. This study provided information about student critical thinking skills in junior high school, especially in the environmental change matter which are still low. Thus, the alternative learning strategies to improve students critical thinking skills are very needed. Besides, information on the application of the discovery learning model with e-learning Islamic school was obtained in the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1123
Pages: 1123-1135
cloud_download 756
visibility 1341
9
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756
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1341
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9

Scopus
10

Functional Measurement Applied to Engineering Students’ Test Anxiety Judgment for Online and Face-to-face Tests

test anxiety engineering students cognitive algebra information integration theory

Maria Isolde Hedlefs-Aguilar , Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ricardo Jesus Villarreal-Lozano , Claudia Moreno-Rodriguez , Erick Alejandro Gonzalez-Rodriguez


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This study explored the cognitive mechanism behind information integration in the test anxiety judgments in 140 engineering students. An experiment was designed to test four factors combined (test goal orientation, test cognitive functioning level, test difficulty and test mode). The experimental task required participants to read 36 scenarios, one at a time and then estimate how much test anxiety they would experience in the evaluation situation described in each scenario. The results indicate three response styles (low, moderate, and high-test anxiety) among the participants. The orientation and difficulty of each given exam scenario were the most critical factors dictating test anxiety judgments. Only the moderate test anxiety group considered the test mode to be a third relevant factor. The integration mechanism for Cluster 1 was multiplicative, while for Clusters 2 and 3, it was summative. Furthermore, these last two clusters differed in terms of the valuation of the factors. These results suggest that programs that help students to cope with test anxiety need to take into account the valuation and integration mechanism that students use to integrate different information in specific examination contexts, since the way students assess their internal and external circumstances can influence how they deal with evaluative situations.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1599
Pages: 1599-1612
cloud_download 462
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462
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523
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2

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2

The Interrelationships between Metacognition and Modeling Competency: The Moderating Role of the Academic Year

academic year levels confirmatory factor analysis mathematical modeling metacognition structural equation modelling

Riyan Hidayat , Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed Zamri , Hutkemri Zulnaidi , Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah , Mazlini Adnan


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Several concerted movements toward mathematical modeling have been seen in the last decade, reflecting the growing global relationship between the role of mathematics in the context of modern science, technology and real life. The literature has mainly covered the theoretical basis of research questions in mathematical modeling and the use of effective research methods in the studies. Driven by the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) theory and empirical evidence on metacognition and modeling competency, this research aimed at exploring the interrelationships between metacognition and mathematical modeling and academic year level as a moderator via the SEM approach. This study involved 538 students as participants. From this sample, 133 students (24.7%) were from the first academic year, 223 (41.4%) were from the second and 182 (33.8%) were from the third. A correlational research design was employed to answer the research question. Cluster random sampling was used to gather the sample. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized moderation employing IBM SPSS Amos version 18. Our findings confirmed the direct correlation between metacognition and mathematical modeling was statistically significant. Academic year level as a partial moderator significantly moderates the interrelationships between the metacognitive strategies and mathematical modeling competency. The effect of metacognition on mathematical modeling competency was more pronounced in the year two group compared to the year one and three groups.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1853
Pages: 1853-1866
cloud_download 597
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597
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686
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8

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6

Treatment and Evaluation of Game as a Didactic Resource in the Communication of Teachers Through Social Networks

educational game educational resources social networks teacher training twitter

Lina Higueras-Rodríguez , Marta Medina-García , Estefanía Martínez-Valdivia


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This research presents an analysis of the value given to the game as an educational resource on social networks. The purpose of this study is to analyze the discourse on Twitter of the different educational agents (teachers and other educational professionals) to know the value given to the use of this tool and how the social network is an educational form of communication and interaction. From a qualitative methodology, a descriptive-interpretative study of the information on didactic/play strategies present in social networks is approached. The analysis is performed by the Nvivo12 software through matrices and content analysis. The results show that the game is mentioned within the speech on Twitter where it is alluded to its importance, value, application, etc. From an educational perspective, working in the classroom with the use of social networks provides some significant advantages; these networks offer interactive and effective teaching and learning tools. In addition, the integration of tools and applications. It is concluded that Twitter is an educational and formative way and where the value attributed to the game as a didactic resource is significant.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2105
Pages: 2105-2119
cloud_download 234
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234
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627
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2

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2

Analysis of the Effectiveness of Different Types of Distance Learning

camera use distance education physical activity

Jera Gregorc , Alenka Humar Resnik


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The purpose of this paper is to determine the relevance of turning the camera on or off during distance learning as an argument for active or passive student participation. Seventy-five (75) students participated in the study and were divided into five groups (1-5) according to teaching method (i.e., synchronous instruction online with camera (1) and without camera (2), synchronous transmission of the recording online with camera (3) and without camera (4) and received the online instruction (5)) only. In the beginning and at the end, all students were tested with the same adapted test to determine general physical and motor status. All groups had the same training program twice a week for 45 minutes for 7 weeks. The first training of the week was dedicated to strength development, the second to endurance. In the end, all participants completed a questionnaire to determine their additional physical activity and how they felt about using a camera. The camera being turned on was identified as a factor that made participants uncomfortable but contributed significantly to the effectiveness of the course. However, 94.6 % of all participants cited non-camera methods as their favourite.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.273
Pages: 273-285
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405
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708
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0

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