Children’s Perceptions of Tests: A Content Analysis
APA 6th edition
Bulgan, G. (2018). Children’s Perceptions of Tests: A Content Analysis. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(2), 159-167. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.159
Bulgan G. 2018 'Children’s Perceptions of Tests: A Content Analysis', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 159-167. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.159
Chicago 16th edition
Bulgan, Gokce . "Children’s Perceptions of Tests: A Content Analysis". (2018)European Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 2(2018): 159-167. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.159
Anxiety that students experience during test taking negatively influences their academic achievement. Understanding how students perceive tests and how they feel during test taking could help in taking effective preventive measures. Hence, the current study focused on assessing children’s perceptions of tests using content analysis. The sample consisted of 1143 participants (566 females and 570 males) attending 3rd (n = 320), 4th (n = 420), 5th (n = 197), and 6th (n = 206) grade classes in three public schools in Istanbul, Turkey. The findings indicated that three main domains emerged from the data. The domains and the categories under each domain were as follows: evaluation (grades, success vs. failure, learning and development, and intelligence), emotions (excitement, fear and anxiety, happiness, curiosity, mixed feelings, and disappointment), and experiential process (answering questions, studying, difficulty, thinking, having fun, cheating vs. honesty, and silence). Understanding students’ experiences with testing early on in their education will give researchers and practitioners the chance to plan effective applications for treatment and prevention, which would influence students’ future achievement and experiences. The study findings could also help teachers and school counselors plan more effective teaching and counseling programs that take into account students’ anxiety levels during tests.
Keywords: Testing, test anxiety, children, school, educational psychology.
Ashcraft, M. (2002). Math anxiety: Personal, educational, and cognitive consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), 181-185.
Aydin, U., & Bulgan, G. (2017). Cocuklarda Sinav Kaygisi Olcegi’nin Turkce uyarlamasi [Adaptation of Children’s Test Anxiety Scale to Turkish]. Ilkogretim Online [Elementary Education Online], 16(2), 887-899. DOI: 10.17051/ilkonline.2017.304742
Bodas, J., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Test anxiety: A cross-cultural perspective. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8(1), 65-88. doi: 10.1007/s10567-005-2342-x
Crisan, C., & Copaci, I. (2015). The relationship between primary school childrens’ test anxiety and academic performance. Procedia – Socail and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 1584-1589.
Bukulmez, E., & Tutkun, O. F. (2015). 8. Sinif ogrencilerinde sinav kaygisi ve ders calisma yaklasimlari arasindaki iliski. [The relationship between test anxiety and approaches for studying in 8th grade students]. In M. Elmas, A. Isman, C. Sexton, D. Franklin, T. Franklin, & A. Eskicumali (Eds.), International Conference on Quality in Higher Education (pp. 5-14). Sakarya University, Turkey.
Dursun, S., & Bindak, R. (2011). Ilkogretim II. kademe ogrencilerinin matematik kaygilarinin incelenmesi. [The investigation of elementary school students’ mathematics anxiety]. Cumhuriyet Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi [Cumhuriyet University Journal of Social Sciences], 35(1), 18-21.
Education Reform Initiative. (2014). Turkiye PISA 2012 analizi: Matematikte ogrenci motivasyonu, ozyeterlilik, kaygi ve basarisizlik algisi. [Analysis of Turkey’s PISA 2012 results: Student motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and perception of failure in mathematics]. Retrieved March 5, 2017, http://www.egitimreformugirisimi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/PISA_2012_Paketi_Ogrenci_Analizi.Motivasyon.pdf
Erol, E. (1989). Prevalence and correlates of math anxiety in Turkish high school students. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
Frojd, S. A., Nissinen, E. S., Pelkonen, M. U. I., Marttunen, M. J., Koivisto, A. M., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 485-498.
Hancock, D. R. (2001). Effects of test anxiety and evaluative threat on students’ achievement and motivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(5), 284-290.
Hill, K. T., & Eaton, W. O. (1977). The interaction of test anxiety and success-failure experiences in determining children’s arithmetic performance. Developmental Psychology, 13(3), 205-211.
Hysenbegasi, A., Hass, S. L., & Rowland, C. R. (2005). The impact of depression on the academic productivity of university students. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 8(3), 145-151.
Kaya, M., & Savrun, B. M. (2015). Ortaogretime gecis sistemi ortak sinavlarina girecek ortaokul 8. sinif ogrencilerinin baglanma stilleri ile sinav kaygi duzeyleri arasindaki iliski. [Relationship between attachment styles and test anxiety of students who will take the common exam for transition to secondary education system]. Yeni Symposium, 53(3), 32-42.
Kirkaplan, M. (2015). Temel egitimden ortaogretime gecis (TEOG) ile ilgili 8. sinif ogrencilerinin sinav kaygi duzeylerinin incelenmesi. [The survey of the 8th grade students’ anxiety level about the passing from primary education to secondary education (TEOG)]. Unpublished Master’s Project, Pamukkale University, Denizli.
Lowe, P. A., & Ang, R. P. (2012). Cross-cultural examination of test anxiety among US and Singapore students on the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E), Educational Psychology, 32(1), 107-126. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2011.625625
McDonald, A. (2001). The prevalence and effects of test anxiety in school children. Educational Psychology, 21(1), 89-101. doi: 10.1080/01443410020019867
Ministry of National Education. (2016). National education statistics: Formal education. Retrieved June 24, 2017, http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2016_03/ 30044345_meb_istatistikleri_ orgun_egitim_2015_2016.pdf
Oksal, A., Durmaz, B., & Akin, A. (2013). SBS’ye hazirlanan ogrencilerin sinav ve matematik kaygilarinin bazi degiskenler acisindan incelenmesi. [An investigation into exam and maths anxiety of students preparing for SBS]. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 2(4), 47-62.
Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in academic performance: An exploration of the mediating factors of worry and working memory. School Psychology International, 33(4), 433-449.
Ozcan, M. (2013). Okulda universite: Turkiye’de ogretmen egitimini yeniden yapilandirmak icin bir model onerisi. [University within school: A new model to re-structure teacher education in Turkey]. Istanbul: TUSIAD.
Peleg-Popko, O. (2002). Children’s test anxiety and family interaction patterns. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 15(1), 45-59.
Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 76(1), 14-26.
Putwain, D. W., & Daniels, R. A. (2010). Is the relationship between competence beliefs and test anxiety influenced by goal orientation? Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 8-13.
Segool, N. K., Carlson, J. S., Goforth, A. N., Von Der Embse, N., & Barterian, J. A. (2013). Heightented test anxiety among young children: Elementary school students’ anxious responses to high-stakes testing. Psychology in the Schools, 50(5),489-499.
Serdar-Kahveci, S. (2009). Ortaogretim kurumlarina gecis sisteminde uygulanan sinavlarin ailelere maliyetinin ailelerin toplam egitim harcamalari icindeki payi. [Costs associated with exams in transition from primary education to secondary education as proportion of total expenditures paid by families]. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.
Tobias, S. (1985). Test anxiety: Interference, defective skills, and cognitive capacity. Educational Psychologist, 20(3), 135-142.
Wren, D. G., & Benson, J. (2004). Measuring test anxiety in children: Scale development and internal construct validation. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 17(3), 227-240.
Yenilmez, K., & Ozabaci, N. S. (2003). Yatili ogretmen okulu ogrencilerinin matematik ile ilgili tutumlari ve matematik kaygi duzeyleri arasindaki iliski uzerine bir arastirma. [A study on the relationship between mathematics attitudes and mathematics anxiety of teacher boarding school students]. Pamukkale Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi [Pamukkale University Journal of Education], 2(14), 132-146.
Yenilmez, K., & Ozbey, N. (2006). Ozel okul ve devlet okulu ogrencilerinin matematik kaygi duzeyleri uzerine bir arastirma. [A study on the mathematics anxiety levels of private school and public school students.]. Uludag Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi [Uludag University Journal of Education], 19(2), 431-448.
Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18(5), 459-482. doi: 10.1002/cne.920180503
Yildirim, I. (2004). Depresyonun yordayicisi olarak sinav kaygisi, gundelik sikintilar ve sosyal destek. [Test anxiety, daily hassles, and social support as predictors of depression]. Hacettepe Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi [Hacettepe University Journal of Education], 27, 241-250.