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Volume 13 Issue 2 (April 2024)

Community-Based Project Learning: Empowering Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Creativity

community creativity project self-regulated learning

Aynin Mashfufah , I Wayan Dasna , Candra Utama


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Changes and challenges in the highly dynamic world of education require postgraduate students to manage their learning well and create something from their creative thinking according to the needs of the field. One of them is the activity of students in developing integrated natural science teaching materials is very necessary because learning at the primary level still uses integrated or thematic learning. Furthermore, students also need to be encouraged to be adaptive to these challenges by empowering their independence in learning. The ability to manage learning and creativity to create something new is highly prioritized for college graduates to contribute generously to their environment. This study aims to describe the empowerment of self-regulated learning and student creativity in developing natural science teaching materials in collaboration through community-based project learning. This study used a quasi-experimental design with a single-subject design type. The instruments used to retrieve data are creativity assessment rubrics and self-regulated learning questionnaires. The conclusion is that students are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to fulfill the given tasks. Learning is essential for increasing competence, and learning strategies have been adjusted to the material's complexity or the difficulty level of the studied content. The aspect of student creativity in developing Integrated Science teaching materials shows the existence of change from stage one to the next and good categories.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.427
Pages: 427-443
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Implementing online learning has led to several issues, especially those related on assessments to measure students’ learning achievement. This study aimed to obtain accurate information on learning assessments for vocational high school (VHS) students during online learning, including assessment for learning (AfL), assessment as learning (AaL), and assessment of learning (AoL). It also investigated students’ perceptions of the assessments based on their grades. This quantitative research employed the survey method, collecting data through questionnaires. The population of this research is VHS students in Indonesia, totaling 86,885 students. The participants of this study were 487 VHS students. The data were analyzed using descriptive and ANOVA techniques. The results show that most VHS students positively perceive the assessment of learning achievements in online learning for AfL, AaL, and AoL aspects. Moreover, there is a significant difference in students' perceptions of the assessment in online learning based on grades. The perception of class XII students is the highest (average value = 3.90) of all classes, while the other classes have an average value of 3.38 for class XI, and the average value of class X is 3.81.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.445
Pages: 445-456
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Teacher well-being has gained significant prominence in academic publications indexed by Scopus in recent years. This study employs rigorous bibliometric analysis to trace the evolution of teacher well-being literature, examining 326 relevant publications from 1995 to 2022. Our findings reveal two crucial inflexion points in 2013, driven by the global economic downturn, and 2020, propelled by the widespread repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including teacher unemployment. These inflexion points underscore the real-world events' profound impact on academic discourse in teacher well-being. Traditionally, authors from the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom have shaped this discourse. Dutch scholars have also gained recognition, accumulating substantial citations. This paradigm shift is paramount as emerging nations like Iran, Ireland, China, and Austria increasingly contribute, challenging the dominance of Western authors. This shift underscores the evolving dynamics of scholarly contributions in teacher well-being research, emphasizing the need for a more diverse and inclusive academic dialogue. This study provides a panoramic view of the trajectory of teacher well-being research, shedding light on the interplay between global events and scholarly responses. It highlights nations' evolving roles in shaping this discourse, acknowledging established influences while recognizing the contributions emerging from voices in the field. These findings enrich the global dialogue surrounding teacher well-being and offer insights into the dynamic forces shaping this vital field of study, compelling the academic community to adapt, diversify, and foster a more inclusive conversation on teacher well-being.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.457
Pages: 457-478
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Teachers Underutilize Their Learning Styles in Developing Thought-Provoking Questions: A Case Study

critical thinking learning styles thought-provoking questions

Agustiani Putri , Abdur Rahman As’ari , Purwanto , Sharifah Osman , Selly Anastassia Amellia Kharis


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Teachers' learning styles are a crucial part of the learning process as they determine how teachers' brains capture and integrate information linked with the senses. Kurnia, identified as an auditory teacher, was expected to capture written information in a provided numeracy problem. Nevertheless, she prefers to capture visual information, like tables or figures, and utilize them to develop thought-provoking questions. Thus, this study intends to investigate her reasons and the factors affecting Kurnia's decision to utilize visual information as a reference in developing questions. This research adopts a qualitative design covering a case study. Kurnia was selected from 32 teachers from 28 schools; roughly 43% were from public schools, and 57% from private schools. Kurnia placed more emphasis on pictorial information before proposing questions, which was caused by situational factors: the subject matter, the grade level, the student's engagement in the class, the teacher's experience, the teaching experience, and the diversity of students' learning styles. This article recommends that teachers recognize their learning styles to know their strengths and weaknesses in teaching mathematics, and that they convey understandable information utilizing effective instructional methods that represent each learning style of students in the classroom.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.479
Pages: 479-495
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Indonesian Teachers' Acceptance on Online Teaching Technology During the COVID-19 Pandemic

facilitating condition pandemic pls-sem technology acceptance model tpack self-efficacy

Bisri Musthofa , I Nyoman Sudana Degeng , Punaji Setyosari , Sulthoni


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This study investigates the impact of external variables, technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) self-efficacy, and facilitating conditions on teacher adoption of online teaching technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. It employs explanatory research to characterize the effect of external variables on the variables of the technology acceptance model. 240 high school teachers filled out Google Forms survey questionnaires for six research variables and analyzed by the SmartPLS program. The result indicates that attitude and perceived usefulness significantly and positively influence behavioral intention. Perceived usefulness and ease of use have a strong positive effect on attitude. Furthermore, perceived ease of use has a considerable effect on perceived usefulness. Perceived usefulness and ease of use are not significantly influenced by external variables. Facilitating conditions significantly positively affect behavioral intention, whereas TPACK self-efficacy negatively affects behavioral intention.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.497
Pages: 497-509
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MIB-Inquiry-Infographic Android Application and Its Impact on Students' Critical Thinking Skills during the COVID-19 Pandemic

critical thinking skill infographic inquiry momentum-impulse e-book

Supahar Supahar , Habibah Khusna Baihaqi , Himawan Putranta , Ivandra Immanuela Latumakulita , Farchan Oktavianto Pribadi , Racy Religia


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Momentum-impulse requires critical thinking skills, and teaching should be encouraging for students. Critical thinking skills can be fostered through inquiry-based learning. During the COVID-19 pandemic, familiar learning media were used for students. Therefore, it is necessary to develop creative learning media. This developmental research aimed to create a momentum-impulse e-book based on inquiry supported by infographics (MIB -In-graph) to enhance students' critical thinking skills. The developmental model was a 4D model with field testing, i.e., a pretest-posttest control group design with three classes. Descriptive analysis showed that MIB-In-graph, an Android application, received a good average rating in content, worksheets, and forms. Students’ responses were very positive. Mixed design ANOVA showed that the mean score of students’ critical thinking skills increased significantly from the pretest to the posttest in each class and students’ critical thinking skills in the experimental class was more salient than control class 1 and control class 2. The highest difference in mean scores was in the experimental class. The differences were influenced by various factors such as learning approaches, media use, pictures, and collaboration.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.511
Pages: 511-530
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Institutions of higher education generally employ both lecture-based and project-based approaches to instruction. This study aims to investigate which aspects of lectures and project-based instructional environments contribute to “deep” and “surface” approaches to student learning. We collected and compared survey data from undergraduate students taking a civil engineering course in which they were assigned to a section taught with lecture-based instruction (n = 181) or with project-based instruction (n = 142). Data analysis was performed after controlling for the effects of the motivational goal orientations of students. A positive correlation can be found between deep learning and higher levels of investigative culture and student involvement in the project-based classroom. Additionally, we found that higher levels of task orientation in the project-based classroom had an inverse correlation with a “surface approach”. We discussed the value of an investigative and participatory learning atmosphere for student approach to learning and its curricular implications for the design of project-based and lecture-based instruction.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.531
Pages: 531-539
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Students in mathematics classes do not understand the importance of sociomathematical norms in learning mathematics. This causes sociomathematical norms not to be teachers' focus when learning mathematics. Besides, there is no standardized instrument for assessing this norm, so developing this instrument is necessary to measure socio-mathematical norms in learning mathematics. This study aims to create and verify the psychometric validity of the sociomathematical norm scale. This research used a survey method with 505 senior high school students from Jakarta and West Java as respondents. The results showed that 25 items had convergent validity, with a loading factor value of > 0.700, meaning they could be declared valid. Concurrent validity indicates that each sociomathematical norms indicator is valid as a whole. Discriminant validity shows that the average variance extracted value on the diagonal is higher than the other values, so each item is declared valid. It was concluded that each item of the sociomathematical norms instrument has accuracy in its measurement function. The reliability test shows that each sociomathematical norms item is declared reliable. The reliability value of the sociomathematical norm item is .99, and the person's reliability is .86. Thus, the instruments developed can measure sociomathematical norms in learning mathematics.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.541
Pages: 541-556
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This qualitative study examines the experiences of pre-service high school biology teachers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, focusing on the challenges and transformative learning experiences encountered during their school-based internship. It aims to explore the dichotomy between specialized biology knowledge and practical applicability in high school teaching and uncover the significance of fostering student engagement through innovative strategies and the role of mentor teachers in guiding pre-service teachers. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from pre-service biology teachers who completed a school-based internship in the Mekong Delta. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the interview data. The study highlights the challenges of bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and classroom practice, emphasizing the importance of innovative teaching strategies for student engagement. It recognizes the role of mentor teachers in guiding and enhancing the skills of pre-service teachers in creating effective learning environments. Findings suggest the need for curriculum reforms that balance specialized biology knowledge and practical pedagogical skills. The study emphasizes the importance of experiential learning through teaching apprenticeships to better prepare pre-service teachers for their professional journey.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.557
Pages: 557-571
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The central focus of this study is exploring the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Chatbots in enhancing digital dialogue for students. The study investigates the key attributes of Chatbots that can contribute to the feasibility of facilitating digital dialogue to improve students' communication skills through discussions and dialogues. The study employed a descriptive method using a questionnaire to gather the perspectives of 35 educational experts on the use of AI Chatbots in digital dialogue skills. This study revealed that using AI Chatbots plays a crucial role in enhancing digital dialogue skills and can be effectively integrated into instructional practices to facilitate meaningful dialogue among students. Finally, the study recommends that educational technology specialists leverage new technologies, such as Al Chatbots to help improve student performance and facilitate digital dialogue in education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.573
Pages: 573-584
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This study examines the state of grant writing practices in Ukrainian universities and proposes recommendations to enhance their capacity to secure external funding for research and development. Through a mixed-methods approach involving surveys and semi-structured interviews, data was gathered from researchers and faculty members. The study identifies challenges faced by Ukrainian universities in obtaining external funding and highlights important themes for improving grant-writing practices. These themes include promoting collaboration, providing resources and infrastructure, implementing language support policies, raising awareness of funding opportunities, offering institutional support, fostering a research culture, establishing internal grant review processes, leveraging international collaborations, and emphasising evaluation and learning. By addressing these themes, Ukrainian universities can improve their grant-writing practices, increase proposal competitiveness, and enhance success rates in securing external funding. This study provides valuable insights, complements existing literature, and offers practical recommendations for grant writing in Ukrainian universities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.585
Pages: 585-603
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Developing an Augmented Reality-Assisted Worksheet to Support the Digital Science Practicum

augmented reality learning technology digital science practicum

Arief Muttaqiin , Rani Oktavia , Zaky Farid Luthfi , Yulkifli


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The purpose of this research is to develop a worksheet that can support a digital science practicum. Conducting a needs analysis comes first in the development of worksheets, then comes product creation. The product produced based on the needs test analysis is a worksheet with the help of science worksheet-augmented reality (SWAR). Two knowledgeable education professionals then evaluate the finished product and test it out on participants or students. The results of the study show that worksheets equipped with augmented reality media are necessary. Meanwhile, the resulting product is valid in an almost perfect category (Pe = 0.7219; Po = 0.9744; K = 0.9078). Student perceptions of the products produced are at an "excellent" level in each category (ME-Av, mean = 3.466; CO-Av, mean = 3.472; CT-Av, mean = 3.503; ST-Av, mean = 3,507; TA-Av, mean = 3.440; IN-Av, mean = 3.640; MO-Av, mean = 3.640). There is a significant inverse relationship between media features (ME-Av) and student interest (IN-Av) based on Pearson's correlation test with r = -.50 (p < .50). Further explanation is presented based on the data that has been collected.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.605
Pages: 605-617
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Development and Psychometric Validation of an Information Competency Assessment: The Information Management Brief Scale

information competency information literacy information management inventory inventory

Mónica Azucena Castillo-de-León , Luz Marina Méndez-Hinojosa , Magaly Cárdenas-Rodríguez


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Today's college students relate directly to the information through which they learn. They are the ones who detect the information they need, search and evaluate it, and also use it to develop academic projects. Information literacy programs have increased in universities to support the development of these skills to students. The aim of this study was to provide an instrument that allows the measurement of information competency in higher level students and generate evidence of its validity and reliability. The Information Management Brief Inventory (IMBS) was developed, which consisted of 16 Likert type items. IMBS was applied to a sample of 1,937 students from a public university in northern Mexico. For the evaluation of the construct validity and identification of the factor grouping of the items, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to explore the goodness of fit of the model. It was found that the 16 items were grouped into three factors: information management, access to information and information ethics. The psychometric properties of IMBS were adequate.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.619
Pages: 619-630
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Evaluation of the Pedagogical Impact of the Educational Usage of 3D Printing in Czech Lower Secondary and Grammar Schools

3d print education pedagogical impact teaching aids

Kamil Malinka , Libuše Vodová , Martina Jančová , Lenka Sobková , Vladimír Schindler


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In this article, we discuss the impacts of using 3D printing in education. Our primary goal is to evaluate the pedagogical impact of lessons utilizing 3D printing. We asked one hundred ninety students in four reference schools about the acceptability of existing 3D materials for teaching. Although the results show high attractiveness for the target group, it turned out that the available lessons primarily focus on the acquisition of technical skills and do not use the potential of education in other areas. We, therefore, proposed a concept for creating multidisciplinary teaching lessons that connect the technical part with other educational areas. We show the application of our concept in a newly developed lesson in biology, where we again evaluate its acceptance among the students. The results show that although the multidisciplinary lessons are more complex, they are still acceptable to the students, and, most importantly, they add significant educational value. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of incorporating 3D printing into the teaching curriculum. We also use a selected use case to illustrate the real-world problems we have encountered.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.631
Pages: 631-649
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Guiding Principles for the Use of Feedback in Educational and Psychosocial Interventions

design feedback framework intervention strategies

Coral L. Shuster , Theodore A. Walls , L.A.R. Stein


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Psychosocial and educational intervention approaches employ diverse treatment frameworks, most of which involve delivering some form of feedback to participants about their behavior. General conceptions of feedback are well-known to underlie mainstream therapeutic and educational approaches. Recently emerging ‘smart’ approaches also rely on feedback principles. However, little scholarship is available to stitch together evolving strands of feedback principles and no literature characterizes explicitly the diverse landscape of feedback practices employed in education or intervention science. This paper reviews intrinsic conceptions of feedback along with diverse cases of its use in intervention and education. Based on our consideration, we present a typology of feedback modalities that we hope will enrich the efforts of interventionists and educators to design treatment and educational frameworks incorporating feedback.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.651
Pages: 651-663
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Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a Scale for Emotional Regulation in Academic Activities

emotional regulation emotions inventory self-control

Magaly Cardenas-Rodriguez , Luz Marina Mendez-Hinojosa , Monica Azucena Castillo-de-Leon , Jesus Enrique Esquivel-Cruz , Cesar Alejandro Ortiz-Paez


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This study arises from the need to scientifically investigate how university students deal with their emotions in school situations. Therefore, the objective was to develop an instrument that measured university students' level of emotional regulation during academic activities and evaluate its validity and reliability. After a thorough literature review of the definitions of the constructs, the Emotional Regulation Scale in Academic Activities (ERAAS) was developed. The first version of ERAAS consisted of 18 Likert-type items. A total of 1975 university students in various departments responded to the instrument. Two groups of experts evaluated its content validity. Validity and reliability analysis was performed. According to the EFA, three factors were found: emotional regulation, psychologic inadequate emotional regulation, and physiological insufficient emotional regulation. The final version of the scale consisted of 11 items, the validity and reliability of which could be demonstrated for further research purposes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.665
Pages: 665-677
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Publishing a Research: Shared Experiences of Preservice Teachers as Novice Researchers in Research Journals

research experiences research journal research publication undergraduate researchers

Bryan V. Catama , Kenneth C. Garcia , Harold B. Balinhawang , Kaye Genamari P. Bobadilla , Joseph Samuel T. Chiok , Jackielyn P. Diwata , Jeff Jerico F. Ferrer , Kimberly B. Gacelan , John Miguel D. Carreon


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Publishing research is crucial and is of utmost significance. However, it is a daunting task for most researchers, especially if one is a beginner with very limited experience. The generalizability of much of the previously published research was limited to the negative aspects of the publishing process rather than the whole circumstances they had to face. Therefore, this article sought to explore the experiences of preservice teachers as novice researchers in publishing their research outputs in a research journal. This study employed a qualitative-phenomenological approach. Five major themes emerged from the interview with eight purposively selected former preservice teachers who had first-time encounters in publishing that the research investigates. These themes were encapsulated through the acronym “FLAME,” namely: (a) facing personal circumstances, (b) leveraging positive dispositions, (c) acknowledging dependency on research promoter, (d) meeting publishing standards, and (e) encountering poor physical and mental well-being. This article concludes that the journal publishing process is a multidimensional and enriching experience, providing the full spectrum of positive and negative experiences for novice researchers. This paper highlighted some implications that can be used as a guide to support novice researchers in the publication process.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.679
Pages: 679-691
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Principal Support and Teacher Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Collective Teacher Efficacy

collective teacher efficacy principal support teacher self-efficacy

Marina Đuranović , Irena Klasnić , Tomislava Vidić


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This study investigated the extent to which demographic variables, principal support and teacher self-efficacy contribute to the collective teacher efficacy. In the study, a non-probability purposive sample was used, which included 761 teachers working in compulsory primary schools in all parts of the Republic of Croatia. The first part of the administered online questionnaire provided data on sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, while in the second part, the following scales were used: The Principal Support Scale, The Teacher Sense of Teacher Efficacy Scale and The Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale. The results of the performed regression analyses show that: 1) the demographic variables - workplace, promotion to a higher rank and principal support have a predictive value in explaining teachers’ self-efficacy; 2) an average number of students per class, promotion to a higher rank, principal support, teacher engagement and teaching strategies have a predictive value in explaining collective teacher efficacy. The findings of this study will be discussed in terms of their potential impact and future research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.693
Pages: 693-703
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Although central governments, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean, have defined reducing school dropout rates as a priority, and drawn policies accordingly, there are still young people who do not finish secondary education, and numbers are still alarming. Therefore, it is necessary to observe educational communities and analyze how they interpret and implement guidelines issued by the central government. The following study sought to describe the institutional and teaching practices deployed by four high schools in Valparaíso (Chile) in order to achieve student retention. A qualitative approach was employed. The management team, support professionals, teachers, students, and their families were interviewed. The information gathered was analyzed using the Grounded Theory. As a main finding, establishments use practices such as monitoring attendance, providing support to students facing problematic situations, and encouraging them during class, through a series of strategies. It is recommended that researchers implement this type of methodology for other study objectives, and that the central government consider these results to provide feedback on its policies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.705
Pages: 705-718
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Logistic Regression Analysis: Predicting the Effect of Critical Thinking and Experience Active Learning Models on Academic Performance

academic performance critical thinking skills experience with pjbl and sbl logit analysis

Hery Sawiji , Sigit Permansah , Subroto Rapih , Nur Rahmi Akbarini , Dede Rusmana , Yosep Tegar Prameswara , Muhammad Irfan Aminudin


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This study aims to analyse the relationship between critical thinking and the learning experience provided by instructors through active learning models, specifically Project-based Learning (PjBL) and Simulation-based Learning (SBL), to the potential achievement of academic performance in undergraduate students. The main analysis technique employed in this research was logistic regression, with additional analysis techniques including discriminant validity, EFA, as well as Kendall’s and Spearman’s correlation, serving as a robustness check. The results of this study indicate significant correlations and effects of critical thinking (CT) on academic performance. Higher levels of CT are associated with a greater likelihood of achieving academic excellence, as indicated by the cum laude distinction, compared to not attaining this distinction. Experiences of receiving PjBL (0.025; 6.816) and SBL (0.014; 14.35) predicted the potential for improving academic performance to reach cum laude recognition, relative to not achieving this distinction. Furthermore, other intercept factors need to be considered to achieve cum laude compared to not achieving cum laude. We recommend that policymakers in higher education, instructors, and others focus on enhancing critical thinking and utilizing both Pub and SBL as learning models to improve students’ academic performance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.719
Pages: 719-734
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There has been a clear shift in higher education to prepare and empower the current students for a future quite different and more complex than that faced by previous generations. In particular, it is expected that they will possess comprehensive abilities to deal with challenges arising from new employment demands and beyond. While liberal arts education has a long history in the West, it has been increasingly implemented more recently in East Asia as one response to the need for educational reform. The research reported here is an empirical study of how liberal arts education has affected individuals from two institutions with distinctive interpretations of “liberal arts education” - University N, the first Sino-foreign joint university in mainland China, and University L, the only public liberal arts university in Hong Kong. Drawing on Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice, this study illustrates the interplay and balance among students’ practical concerns, their sense of social obligation fostered through liberal arts education elements and the wider social structure. Semi-structured interviews with senior students, fresh graduates, and educators were conducted to gather in-depth primary data. These reveal that, by providing interdisciplinary knowledge and transferable skill sets, a liberal arts education experience does enhance individuals’ personal agency and intellectual competencies in a professional context - they are trained to become independent thinkers and learners. Moreover, the “humanistic” aspect of liberal arts is also relevant: having engaged in various activities and programs, students in both universities are encouraged to care, cooperate, and make positive differences in their increasingly interconnected communities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.735
Pages: 735-746
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This study aims to develop a Critical Thinking-Independent Learning (CTIL) model to improve students' critical thinking skills that meet valid, practical, and effective criteria. This type of research was Research and Development (R&D), with a one-group pre-test and post-test design without a controlled class. The CTIL model was validated by three experts in the field of science education and then tested on 156 students in three public junior high schools in Surabaya, Indonesia. The results revealed that: (a) The CTIL model was valid based on the model validity score with an average of 3.73 (very good category) and the validity score of the learning materials with an average of 3.72 (very good category); (b) The practical CTIL model based on the averaged observations of the implementation of learning using the CTIL model was 3.88 (very good category); and (c) The CTIL model was effective based on four determining factors, namely: an increase in critical thinking skills, which was statistically significant at alpha .05; the calculated mean N-gain of .72 (high category), similar mean values for all test classes in all schools participated in this study; the effect size of 3.07 (strong category); and the average student response of 84% (very good category).

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.747
Pages: 747-762
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This paper presents the meaning and characteristics of collaboration between school counsellors, school principals, and teachers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovenia and the extraordinary situation in which work in educational institutions changed dramatically overnight and the community of students and professionals moved into a virtual space. In the first part of the paper, we highlight that a strong network of professionals in an educational institution is key to achieving the vision, goals and quality of educational work. In the second part of the paper, we present the results of a survey conducted through an online questionnaire among 328 Slovenian counsellors during the first wave of COVID-19 in April 2020. The results of this survey show a positive attitude of counsellors towards collaboration with principals and teachers. The emergency situation has raised awareness among all school professionals about the importance of mutual support, while providing an opportunity to reflect on ways to improve mutual collaboration and build mutual relationships that enable quality pedagogical work. One of the biggest challenges for any school community now is to maintain the sense of alliance and mutual support that was created in many schools during the pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.763
Pages: 763-777
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Art Teaching: Inclusive Factor and Attention to Diversity

artistic creation art education cultural diversity inclusive education

Hilda María Arévalo-Vásquez , Judith Soledad Yangali-Vicente , Jaime Agustín Sánchez-Ortega


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The current research aims to analyze art teaching as an inclusive factor and pays attention to diversity in excluded populations to meet the needs of students in the pandemic context. In regard to methodology, we used the naturalistic paradigm, a qualitative approach, and an inductive method with a phenomenological and hermeneutical design. The data collection techniques we used were semi-structured interviews with teachers of the Regular Basic Education in Peru. The findings show that through the mediation of diverse artistic languages and the implementation of different didactic strategies, it is possible to achieve an interaction free from exclusion barriers, driven by good teaching practices that enable the inclusion and attention to the diversity of students, providing them with opportunities to develop capacities and skills to establish better coexistence. We concluded that art education comprises a lasting learning process that guarantees a healthy environment for peaceful coexistence, which today, inclusive teachers, parents, and students should keep in mind.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.779
Pages: 779-793
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Measuring Interest: Development and Application of a Three-Dimensional Situational Interest Short Scale

components of interest scale development situational interest situational interest short scale

Matthias Winfried Kleespies , Annette Scheersoi , Paul Wilhelm Dierkes , Volker Wenzel


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Situational interest is an important factor that has a great influence on learning success in both in-school and out-of-school learning situations. Although there has been extensive research on interest in its diverse forms for decades, an evaluated measurement instrument for situational interest that covers the three theoretically defined components of interest (emotional, cognitive, value-related) is still missing. Therefore, in this study, based on person-object theory of interest, a short scale was developed that can be used in a variety of learning programs independent of content or methods. In study 1, eight suitable items were selected and their structure was examined using exploratory methods. In study 2, the results of study 1 were verified using confirmatory factor analyses. Study 3 shows an example of a practical application of the newly developed scale in two different learning settings. The findings provide evidence that the scale developed here is a practical instrument to measure situational interest taking into account all its components. On the one hand, the scale can help teachers evaluate their educational programs; on the other hand, it can be used by researchers to empirically investigate the construct of interest. Thus, the scale makes an important contribution to research and practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.795
Pages: 795-811
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Conceptual Model for the Assessment of Academic Productivity in Research Seedbeds From a Systematic Review

formative research higher education measurement productivity research seedbeds

Magda Alejandra Martinez-Daza , Lira Isis Valencia-Quecano , Alfredo Guzmán-Rincón


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Higher education institutions have focused their efforts on promoting research seedbeds as a strategy for formative research. In this regard, the impact of such a strategy remains unknown due to the lack of models that enable its evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed to design an evaluation model for the academic productivity of research seedbeds based on the available evidence in the literature. To achieve this, a systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA model, analyzing 53 documents including articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings from the SCOPUS, ProQuest, Jstor, Scielo, and ScienceDirect databases. The results identified indicators that allowed for the design of a model based on six constructs: research training, institutional capabilities, bibliographic production, innovation and development, social appropriation of knowledge, and human resource training. It was concluded that the indicators evaluating research seedbeds seek greater scientific development involving students and improving the quality of research products, which directly impacts the institutional research mission.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.813
Pages: 813-833
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Kindergarten educators represent the first contact of children with the institutional environment. In this article we assume that kindergarten educators have a significant impact on children's perception of their first/mother tongue and their language development. Language is one of the core kindergarten curriculum areas in which the educator needs to be adequately empowered to set an example for the children, while at the same time developing their communicative competence which is the basis for (later) efficient communication. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey involving 236 students pursuing early childhood education in all three public universities in the Republic of Slovenia which prepares students for the role of kindergarten educators in order to study their perceptions of the language. The questionnaire-based survey was answered by students in their first and third years i.e., when starting and finishing their studies. A large majority of future kindergarten educators consider their positive attitude towards language in general to be extremely important for kindergarten children as language forms the basis for all other curriculum areas. Also, when surveyed, almost all future kindergarten educators considered it essential to be proficient in the language and to encourage language development in children by following their own example. Furthermore, they believe it is important to have a well-developed linguistic capability (language knowledge), to have the capability of crafting linguistically accurate written content and to master a suitable literary expression.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.835
Pages: 835-849
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The Evolution of Research on School Attendance: A Bibliometric Review of Scholarly Output

bibliometrics school absenteeism school attendance school attendance problems school refusal

Javier Martínez-Torres , Carolina Gonzálvez , Aitana Fernández-Sogorb , José Manuel García-Fernández


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School attendance problems are of great research interest, which is reflected in the increase of scientific publications. This increase hinders the adequate follow-up and updating of the scientific community on the subject. The aim of the present bibliometric study lies in the review of the scientific literature published on school attendance problems during 2014-2021. A bibliographic search and analysis of scientific articles was performed, obtaining a definitive sample of 700 documents. Results were extracted and analyzed for the following indicators: temporal productivity, productivity by authors, co-authorship index, productivity by journals, use of topics, research areas addressed and types of samples used. The number of publications indicates a progressive increase of interest on the subject, which has not corresponded to the creation of a specific journal on the subject. There is also evidence of the need for consensus on the topics to be used; the preference for knowing the factors associated with school attendance problems over other areas of research; and the generalized use of community samples as opposed to more specific ones. In conclusion, the characteristics researched on school attendance problems are presented; knowledge that will facilitate the establishment of intervention processes applicable to different contexts and realities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.851
Pages: 851-864
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The Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model is a prominent framework for supporting employee retention, stating that organisations attract, select, and retain people who share their values. However, the ASA model only extends to the end of the recruitment stage and lacks clarity on how to assist newcomers in the assimilation process when they first join the organisation. This research proposed a refinement of the ASA paradigm by incorporating the assimilation process of new hires into the new school culture and environment. This study employed a qualitative research approach by interviewing ten participants about the retention process from high teacher retention international schools in Malaysia. Thematic data analysis revealed a new paradigm, 'Attraction-Selection-Onboarding-Retention (ASOR), ' designed to increase teacher retention in international schools. The ASOR model could assist school administrators and human resource managers working in a related setting in properly engaging the workforce to increase teacher retention. This would benefit school sustainability, performance and the local community's economy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.865
Pages: 865-876
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The importance of research competence in pre-service teacher education has been highlighted in many studies, but concerns over the lack and inconsistency of definition, measurement, and development of research competence still exist. This poses a challenge for pre-service education programmes to provide quality education to pre-service teachers in this area. Through a systematic literature review it was found that there is a gap in the existing literature regarding the definition of research competence in pre-service teacher education, as there seems to be no consensus on the definition. There is, however, an agreement that the development of research competence is an important part of study programmes, as it contributes to higher quality education of pre-service teachers. Addressing this, the review proposes a concise definition of research competence as a multifaceted construct that includes critical thinking, self-directed learning, and organizational skills essential for effective research. The review also highlighted a lack of consensus on the most appropriate frameworks and tools to use in measuring research competence in pre-service teachers, with studies using various frameworks and tools that differ in terms of research methods, instruments and sample characteristics. The results suggest that there is a need for greater attention to be paid to the definition and measurement of research competence, as well as its development within pre-service teacher education programmes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.877
Pages: 877-894
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