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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 6 Issue 3 (July 2017)

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School dropout is a growing concern in Central America, and in Latin America as a whole, because of its consequences for economic productivity, the inclusiveness of growth, social cohesion, and increasing youth risks. This paper utilizes more than two decades of household survey data to construct a systematic overview of school dropout at the primary and secondary levels in Central America, focusing on recent trends in dropout patterns and their underlying causes. Within each country, poverty, rurality, and indigenous group membership are the strongest correlates of dropout, reflecting several underlying factors that affect the marginal benefits and costs of staying in school.  Global and regional evidence increasingly points to common policy priorities for reducing dropout across Central America, including addressing remaining gaps in access at the pre-primary and secondary levels, improving the quality of education at all levels, and strengthening the coverage, targeting, and coherence of existing programs aimed at improving education outcomes.  However, additional rigorous evaluations, including cost data, are needed to identify the most effective specific approaches in each country.  JEL Classification: I2, I24, I25, I26, I28, O15

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.235
Pages: 235-259
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Analysis of principles knowledge representation in information systems led to the necessity of improving the structuring knowledge. It is caused by the development of software component and new possibilities of information technologies. The article combines methodological aspects of structuring knowledge and effective usage of information resources which are designed for the scientific and methodological study of practical recommendations in Digital learning implementation. It is shown at the paper that one of the most important problems, which face the processing of knowledge or construction systems, is knowledge representation. The main idea of the paper is increasing the efficiency at the university learning process on the basis of a possible applications and rational structuring knowledge. The proposed concept of using information resources of Digital Learning is based on the idea of using the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity, hierarchy, typing, concurrency preservation and implementation in such stages of this process as algorithmic support of knowledge structuring and structured transfer of knowledge to students. The topic of the article is unique as we try to see Digital learning in multidisciplinary aspects: education, mathematics, statistics. The article combines a theoretical approach to structuring knowledge that is based on the integrated usage of fuzzy semantic network, theory of predicates, Boolean functions, theory of complexity of network structures and practical aspects and ways of construction Digital Learning Systems at the University.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.261
Pages: 261-267
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The educative project MelArete proposes an interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to Virtue Ethics in the light of the philosophy of care. Starting from the ontological assumption that care is prime in life and without it the human being cannot flourish in his/her humanity, the project is based on an interpretation of the pedagogy of care. Since the practice of care reveals to have an ethical core and that core is made of ways of being-with-the-others, the pedagogical theory of MelArete states that in order to develop a project that is in relationship with the core of life we must educate to care. Therefore, educating to care means educating to virtues. On this basis MelArete proposes activities with the aim to guide children’s attention to the concepts of care and virtues.  MelArete has its many references in Plato and Aristotle; besides it assumes the distinction of Ricoeur between ethics and morality. In Plato/Socrates (Alcibiades I) ethics is an educational action that allows the others to thrive in their own existential capabilities; moreover, in Aristotle’s (Nicomachean Ethics) ethics searches for eudaimonia, a good quality of life. In our educational project with children, the educative methods are the following: conversations (promoting intersubjective thought), narratives (reading and writing stories about virtues), vignettes and games (stimulating ethical thinking through a playful language) and the “diary of virtues” (promoting a reflecting culture of virtues in everyday life). In this paper we present the theoretical background of the project and a summary of the pedagogical approach and application which we are testing in our research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.269
Pages: 269-278
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This qualitative study was designed to introduce STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) activities to pre-service science teachers and identify their views about STEM materials. In this context, a competition was organized with 42 pre-service science teachers (13 male- 29 female) who took Instructional Technologies and Material Development course in Elementary Science Education Department in Siirt University. The competition consisted of 5 categories: balloon powered car, mousetrap car, water rocket, spaghetti bridge 1 (durability) and spaghetti bridge 2 (visuality). Structured interview form developed by researchers was used as data collection instrument. The results were analyzed with the conventional content analysis. Results indicated that participants (especially females) are more willing to use STEM materials in their future teaching life. Participants mostly believe that STEM materials facilitate learning, enhance retention and increase self-confidence. However, there are also pre-service science teachers who believe that preparation of STEM materials is difficult, takes too much time and not appropriate to students’ levels.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.279
Pages: 279 - 288
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of creative drama as a teaching method on academic achievement and retention in social studies, students’ attitude towards social studies of 4th grade. The research is designed according to quasi-experimental model. The research was conducted with 4th year students in a public school in Adana in Turkey. There are 42 students in experimental group and 39 in control group. Creative drama activities were used to develop social studies achievement and attitude of students as a treatment for the experimental group. The treatment consisted of 15 hours, 40 minutes sessions that equal a class hour in school and 3 hours a week. Control groups had been taught by classroom teachers as the way they do traditionally. Data collection tools are “Attitude Towards Social Studies Scale” developed  by Gencel “Achievement Test” developed by the researchers.  Data were processed by using covariance analysis. Findings indicated that creative drama method has a significant effect on social studies achievement and students’ attitude towards social studies but not a significant effect on retention of social studies knowledge.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.289
Pages: 289 - 298
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In the rapidly developing age of technology, the contribution of using multimedia-supported instructional materials in the field of teaching technologies to science education has been increasing steadily. The purpose of this research is to compare the multimedia learning instructional materials prepared according to the 7E learning model and the students' academic success and the effect on the reminiscence of the learned knowledge in the science course described using traditional methods and models. In this research, a quadruple pattern of solomon was used as a semi-experimental design. As a data collection tool, the Matter's Change Unit Success Test was used. The research was conducted in fall semester of 2014-2015 academic year and on 92 fifth grade students. Experimental groups were given instructional materials prepared according to 7E model with multimedia support and control groups were taught with traditional method. There was no statistically significant difference in the pre-test scores of the experimental-1 and control-1 groups according to the independent t-test results in the applied success test but there was a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental groups according to the post-test and retention test scores. According to the analyzed results; There is a statistically significant difference between the post-test and retention test scores of the experimental groups. There is also a statistically significant difference between the post-test and retention test scores of the control groups. But this difference is in favor of experimental groups. According to the results of the study, it can be said that the learning material prepared according to the multimedia supported 7E model influences the academic achievement positively and the learned information is more memorable.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.299
Pages: 299 - 311
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Aim of this research is to identify the self-efficacy perception levels of teacher candidates studying at department of Physical Education and Sport and other teaching departments towards teaching profession, to present whether these the self-efficacy perceptions differ or not depending on independent variables acquired from the personal information of the candidates. It is important that Physical Education teacher candidates have high levels of self-efficacy perception on teaching profession. A total of 904 teacher candidates 175 of whom are studying at department of Physical Education and Sport participated into the research voluntarily. “The Self-efficacy Perception Scale of Teacher Candidates towards Themselves” is used in the research. It is seen that Physical Education teacher candidates have higher levels of self-efficacy perception than other teacher candidates and that self-efficacy perceptions on teaching profession differ depending on gender variable. Also, it is found out that the correlation coefficient between scores obtained in the scale is meaningful both for Physical Education teacher candidates and other teacher candidates.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.313
Pages: 313 - 319
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In this research, it was aimed to determine the views of mathematics teacher candidates about the technological tools that can be used in mathematics lessons. The research was conducted through qualitative research methodology. 120 teacher candidates who were educated in the mathematics teacher education program in Dicle University Ziya Gokalp Education Faculty took part to the research. The data of the study were collected through semi-structured interviews. The data collection tool used in the study is an interview form developed by the researcher, and it consists of open-ended questions. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analyses were used. As a result of the data analysis obtained from the research, it was determined that teacher candidates responded as “computer/computer software” at most for the questions about what technological tools could be used in mathematics lessons, what technological tools they would use when they were teachers, and which technological tools would be beneficial. In addition, teacher candidates stated that there were computers at most as technological tools in their faculties and the technological tools in their faculties were mostly used for visualization/concretization the subject.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.321
Pages: 321 - 330
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This study attempts to reveal pre-service teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of quadrilaterals and their internal relationships in terms of personal and formal figural concepts via case of the parallelograms. To collect data, an open-ended question was addressed to 27 pre-service mathematics teachers, and clinical interviews were conducted with them. The factors influential on pre-service teachers’ definitions of parallelograms and conceptions regarding internal relationships between quadrilaterals were analyzed. The strongest result involved definitions based on prototype figures and partially seeing internal relationships between quadrilaterals via these definitions. As a different result from what is reported in the literature, it was found that the fact that rectangle remains as a special case of parallelogram in pre-service teachers’ figural concepts leads them not to adopt the hierarchical relationship. The findings suggested that learners were likely to recognize quadrilaterals by a special case of them and prototypical figures, even though they knew the formal definition in general. This led learners to have difficulty in understanding the inclusion relations of quadrilaterals.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.331
Pages: 331 - 345
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blog activities on elementary students’ environmental literacy in science class. The relationships between students’ environmental literacy levels, their parents’ interest in environmental activities and the frequency of outdoor activities they do have also been also examined. Pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design has been utilized. The participants of the study are 80 seventh-grade elementary school students. The data have been gathered through “Environmental Literacy Scale”. After that, the instructor has created a blog to share some movies, animations and reflective questions for all the students. The students could follow and engage in all the sharing. The activities have lasted for eight weeks. Descriptive statistics, t-test and regression analysis have been tested via the data. The results have indicated that there is a significant difference between pre and post test scores regarding the students’ “environmental knowledge”, “attitude towards environment” and “being responsible for environment”. Furthermore; positive but weak relationship has been detected between students’ environmental literacy levels and parents’ interests in environmental activities. On the other hand, there is a moderate, positive correlation between students’ interest in environmental problems and involving in outdoor activities with parents(r=0.423, p=0.001). Overall, students’ involvements in blog activities and doing outdoor activities with parents have been found to be effective in acquiring environmental literacy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.347
Pages: 347 - 355
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The purpose of the present study is to investigate pre-service history teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and the effect of pedagogical formation training on this perception. The study is based on a one-group pretest-posttest research design, which is a type of pre-experimental design. For the purpose of the study, in the first week of the formation training, the “Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale” developed by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy and adapted to Turkish by Capa, Cakiroglu and Sarikaya was administered as a pre-test to a group of 178 pre-service history teachers who underwent pedagogical formation training in 2016-2017 academic year in two different universities in Turkey. The same scale was administered again as a post-test at the end of the 28-week training. The study has found out that the pedagogical formation training did not make a significant difference in pre-service history teachers’ perceived self-efficacy except for the classroom management subscale, in which the self-efficacy scores of pre-service history teachers decreased after the pedagogical formation training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.357
Pages: 357-366
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of learning activities based on argumentation about “Force and Motion” unit on conceptual understanding and views about establishing thinking friendly classroom environment of 7th graders. The study was conducted with total 39 students (20 students in experimental group and 19 students in control group) in a secondary school. The experimental group received learning activities based on argumentation while the control group received regular science learning depending on the current science curriculum for over five week period. Both groups were given Force and Motion Concept Test and Thinking Friendly Classroom Scale before and after the instruction. Besides, six students from the experimental group were interviewed after the instruction about conceptual understanding and thinking friendly classroom features by a form developed by the researchers. The results showed that there isn’t a significant difference between conceptual understandings of experimental and control group students. Besides, it was found that there is a significant difference between thinking friendly classroom scale of experimental and control group students in favor of experimental group. Moreover, the results of the interviews conducted with six of experimental group indicated that they feel themselves in thinking friendly classrooms and with a fine conceptual understandings are fine although they have some misconceptions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.367
Pages: 367 - 384
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538
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894
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Advanced technology helps educational institutes to improve student learning performance and outcomes. In this study, our aim is to measure and assess student engagement and collaborative learning in engineering classes when using online technology in solving physics problems. The interactive response system used in this study is a collaborative learning tool that allows teachers to monitor their students’ response and progress in real time. Our results indicated that students have highly positive attitude toward using the interactive response system as a tool in education in order to improve collaborative learning and student engagement in classes. Consequently, student-learning performance has been improved considerably, and technology was successfully incorporated in engineering classes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.385
Pages: 385-394
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This study aims to review the impact of the interactive story reading method on 48-72 month children’s vocabulary based on receptive and expressive language. The study group is 52 children in the 48-72 months age group at the nurseries of primary schools at Ankara province. The research employed a combined pattern analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. The data were collected via "General Information Form" ,"Expressive and Receptive Language Test in Turkish (TIFALDI)" developed under the leadership of Gul Guven and Berument The "Teacher Observation Form", the "Teacher Interview Form" and the "Family Interview Form". In conclusion of the study, a significant difference in favor of the experiment group in the posttest was observed with respect to average posttest scores of experiment and control groups, following the implementation of the Interactive Story Reading Program. The comparison of the follow-up test and pretest score averages revealed a significantly high value in favor of the total for the follow-up test for the children in the experiment group. The agreement among the forms filled out by two observers with reference to the results of the observation and video analysis regarding the implementation of the "Interactive Story Reading Method" by the teachers, was assessed to be good/very good agreement. In the light of these results it can be said that the interactive story reading method have a fundamental impact on receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge of 48-72 months old children.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.395
Pages: 395-406
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