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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 8 Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Once a privilege for the members of the elite, writing is now a staple of everyday life accessible to the masses. Despite its significance for individuals’ economic, psychological, and educational well-being, it may not always be utilized to its full capacity. This is partly due to reductionist approaches to writing without full consideration of its various manifestations in life. This paper will argue that writing is more than the inscription of letters and symbols on paper (or on screen). The common misconception that highly developed artistic skills are a must for one to be a “good” writer often prevents individuals from engaging in rewarding learning experiences in and outside of formal education contexts. The realization of the ways in which writing in fact is a part of our daily lives and therefore cannot be divorced from learning throughout life will reduce concerns about a possible lack in writing skills. It will also be maintained in this paper that there is complementarity between lifelong learning and writing; just as lifelong learning requires the utilization of writing skills, greater involvement in writing and enhancements to one’s writing skills support lifelong learning skills. This paper will also propose that an emphasis on writing across curriculum in formal education settings as well as outside of formal education will help prepare individuals for engagement in continuous learning throughout life.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.1
Pages: 1-7
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4

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In this study, it is aimed to examine the mathematical conceptual skills of 48-72-month-old children attending pre-school education institutions providing a Montessori Approach and Ministry of National Education Pre-school Program (MoNE PSP). The study group consisted of 20 children, who were trained by the Montessori Approach, and 20 children, who continued to attend pre-school education institutions applying the MoNE PSP. The research was carried out in accordance with the state study design of the qualitative research methods, and the data of the study was collected by the structured observation method at the free play/individual work time in the learning centers of the children constituting the study group. A structured observation form was used as the data gathering tool, and mathematical concept skills such as counting, matching, grouping, comparison, positioning, measurement, pattern, part-whole, transactions and creating a graphic were included.  Research data were analyzed with descriptive analysis method, and the frequency and percentage values of the obtained data were calculated. As a result of the study, it was observed that the students trained with the Montessori Approach and MoNE PSP could not create graphics in both groups, while the rhythmic counting and patterning skills were the most observed skills in children. It has been determined that children trained with the Montessori Approach perform more studies, especially on matching, grouping, comparison/ranking, and part-whole skills, compared to the children trained with MoNE PSP. In the light of the results obtained in this research, it is suggested that the play materials that had to be in classes where MoNE PSP was applied should be standardized, and children should be able to get through these materials; also mathematics center should be established in the class level.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.9
Pages: 9-19
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2

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Students’ test anxiety is known to have significant influences on essential academic outcomes, and given the increased testing of school-aged children gender differences also appear in dimensions of test anxiety: thoughts, off-task behaviors, and autonomic reactions. This study examined: (i) whether there is a pattern of correlations exist among three dimensions of test anxiety that are tapped by the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (Wren & Benson, 2004) and (ii) whether gender differences exist in the strength of these test anxiety dimensions. Students (N= 414) from 3 public schools, attending to the fourth grade (205 Females; 209 Males) were asked to rate on the thoughts (cognitive), off-task behaviors (behavioral), autonomic reactions (physiological) dimensions. The results revealed a strong relationship between thoughts and autonomic reactions (r = .57). Applying a multivariate approach, gender differences were found to be significant in overall test anxiety favoring females. Results also revealed a small female advantage for thoughts and autonomic reactions, Ƞ2 = .012 and Ƞ2= .016; but quite a small male advantage for off-task behaviors Ƞ2=.009. Taken as a whole, we need to seriously consider the implications of these differences and pay attention particularly to females in elementary schools.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.21
Pages: 21-30
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8

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In this research, After I have realized some technological applications in the course of general physics laboratory II of the science teacher program, this research aims to examine the effects of the students' attitudes towards technology and the information of the communication technology (ICT) with the mixed method. For this application, after the introduction of Arduino was done, it was used as a measuring instrument in the laboratory; it also used the Fritzing program for circuit diagrams and the e-support system for sending poster studies. The research was carried out with the 50 first-year students of the department of science education at Kocaeli University. In this study, the attitude scales toward technology and ICT were used to collect the quantitative data, and a semi-structured interview form was used to collect the qualitative data. For the quantitative analyses in the study, “t-Test for Dependent Groups” and “A Two-Way ANOVA was used for Complex Measurements”, for the qualitative analyses, “Descriptive Analysis” was used. The two analyses were combined according to the mixed method research model and interpreted. The results of the research showed that technological applications in the physics of the laboratory such as using arduino, fritzing program, and poster studies have a significant effect on the attitudes of students in the study group toward technology and ICT, and it was supported by the qualitative research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.31
Pages: 31-48
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7

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This research study aims to evaluate the graduate theses and articles conducted on the concept of instructional leadership over the period between 2002 and 2017 in Turkey by means of methodological and statistical analysis techniques. In the study, which is configured by using the case study design as one of the qualitative research methods, the related theses are obtained from the database of the Council of Higher Education Thesis Center in Turkey, whereas the related articles are provided through article archives of the National Academic Network and Google Scholar website. The data collected via the academic publication evaluation form are evaluated by frequency analysis using. In the study, 104 postgraduate theses and 35 articles on instructional leadership are conducted, many of which using scales as data collection tools. Lack of due diligence in validity and reliability studies, selection of mostly teachers for sampling, and usage of descriptive t-test and one-way ANOVA techniques in data analyses are detected. As a result, it is shown that similar studies using similar datasets and the same data collection tools have been carried out on instructional leadership. Mixed research and scale development studies in which qualitative and quantitative methods can be used collocation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.49
Pages: 49-62
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This study aims to investigate the anxiety levels of secondary school students towards science course depending on a number of variables. Research sample consists of 2245 students who continue their education at public schools in Denizli in the academic year of 2017-2018. "Anxiety Scale for Science Course-which is developed by Kagitci and Kurbanoglu and "Personal Information Form" are used as data collection tools in the research. SPSS 22.0 package program is used for analysis of the data. Descriptive survey model is used in research. Parametric tests including One-Way ANOVA and independent samples t-test are used for analyzing data. As a result of the research, it is found out that secondary school students’ science anxiety levels significantly differ depending on the variables such as class level, the grade they received in science course, scientific books they read, the documentaries they watch, enjoying the science course and science teacher, educational level of parents, reviewing what they learn in science course and experiencing parental pressure for studying science course. However, there is found no significant difference between students' anxiety levels in terms of gender and their getting support while studying science.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.63
Pages: 63-71
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858
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1

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The purpose of this research is to examine experiences and opinions of nursery school administrators on natural disaster and emergency management. Therefore, 11 nursery school administrators from Izmit, Kocaeli, which suffered major damage from 1999 earthquake, participated in the research. Interview data were analyzed by content analysis. The results showed that teachers and other personnel weren’t adequately trained about intervention in emergencies, exercises couldn’t be implemented realistically and the parents didn’t have enough information about emergencies. Nursery Schools still suffer from physical disabilities, lack of financial support and educated staff, although they do meet the requirements outlined in official sources. The trainings given to school personnel regarding natural disaster and emergency management are rare and insufficient. Physical deficiencies of school buildings should be checked and schools should be in cooperation with relevant ministries and local authorities for financial support. Starting from the primary school level, training programs on natural disasters and emergencies need to be organized. As a result of the research, it was proposed to organize trainings, overcome the physical deficiencies and to provide schools with enough financial support.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.73
Pages: 73-85
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2

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The purpose of the present study is to test a hypothetical model in order to examine the association between students’ sense of classroom belonging along with four other university class-level variables including faculty-student relationships, connected classroom climate referring peer relationships, loneliness and classroom identity. It is intended to draw attention of teacher educators to the importance of creating sense of community at classroom level through this study in order to improve the quality of teacher education. With this aim, pre-service teachers attending the faculty of education were selected as sample of the study (N= 1425). Each measures used in this study was adapted for college-level students through confirmatory factor analysis in order to test specific predictions concerning each measure’s structure and the results revealed that  all measures have adequate psychometric properties. The model examined with structural equation modeling was an excellent fit with the data, and the results indicated that the fitted model explained 50% of the variance in classroom identity; 47% of the variance in sense of classroom belonging; 14% of the variance in classroom climate; and 9% of the variance in loneliness. Results and implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.87
Pages: 87-97
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12

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The aim of the present study was to figure out whether university students’ learning approaches were shaped via their achievement goal orientations, academic self-efficacy and hope or not. The other objective was to examine if these psychological constructs varied in accordance with the demographic variables including gender, age and class level. 332 undergraduates from two different universities who were in the year of junior and senior participated in the study. The Achievement Goal Orientations Scale, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Dispositional Hope Scale and the Demographic Form were utilized to reveal the predictive power of these constructs on their learning attitudes measured by the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that learning goal orientation was a pivotal predictor of both deep and surface approach to learning. Academic self-efficacy and hope were the crucial precursors of deep approach while performance-avoidance goal inclination was a considerable predictor of surface approach. Independent samples t-test analysis displayed that the female undergraduates were superior to the male ones in terms of the learning goal tendency. And the students (20 to 22 aged) demonstrated higher scores on the same variable than the other ones (23 to 25 aged). On the basis of class level, there were no significant differences in the scores of achievement goal orientations, academic self-efficacy, hope and learning approaches. The results pointed out the fact that such concepts pertinent to an undergraduate’s academic performance could be viewed as distinctive features engendering different learning attitudes toward scholastic training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.99
Pages: 99-106
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11

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Target subject is a module called ‘AI Technology’, which applied the ideas of blended learning. Firstly, lecture-style teaching was conducted with presentation slides in order to explain the contents of a textbook. Secondly, students were required to do exercises and quizzes. By using the last eight weeks, they were asked to create presentation slides outside a class to introduce the up-to-date topics on artificial intelligence. These slides were mutually evaluated among them so that they developed their own slides based on the feedback before the tenth week of the course for the second round of mutual evaluations. Questionnaires concerning students’ understanding technical terms of the field and consciousness-raising towards competence were also conducted before and after the programs. The learning effects of a module in ‘AI Technology’ are compared with my previous research outcome of the module, ‘Artificial Intelligence’. The reasons of difference between both modules are discussed. This paper reports their results.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.107
Pages: 107-121
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4

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The different aspects of architectural design and music that act in support of one another have governed the inspiration and utilization of music in design education. This paper describes a Basic Design Studio assignment that involves visualizing music by organizing linear and planar units using basic design principles, with the aim of contributing to the transformation of conceptual thinking to physical formation by the integration of domain material taught in basic design courses. Dealing with music as a design tool, the study relates the perceptional and structural analogy between music and design and discusses its contribution to basic design achievements. The visual expression of the products and the manner in which it relates to appropriate basic design principles and elements qualities are evaluated in the context of organization, abstraction and uniqueness. The assignment given to the students to conduct this evaluation strengthened their ability to transform abstract thinking into physical representation, helped them to understand multidimensional thinking and how to engage in creative thinking, contributed to their architectural education and improved their study skills by giving them experience in coordinating design elements, principles and materials, all of which served to stimulate improvisation and reflection of emotions. From the results of this study, it is recommended that music, which has similar approaches and principles to those of architectural design, can be used as a tool in design and architectural education to support different phases of the creation and expression process.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.123
Pages: 123-139
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Teacher education programs are often accused of failing to prepare preservice teachers for real life classroom situations. In the case of research on classroom management, the focal point is often classroom teachers and their educational and behavioral goals rather than students’ experiences. This study aims to explore the perspectives of preservice teachers on their attitudes and behaviors in the university classrooms. For this purpose, 40 preservice teachers, who studied in the Early Childhood Education department at a state university in Turkey, were selected. The interview was chosen as the data collection method. The interview questions were based on the questions that Cothran, Kulinna and Garrahy (2003) used in their study with the secondary physical education students. The collected data were analyzed by the constant comparison method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and common themes were constructed through the analytic induction method (LeCompte & Preissle, 1993). In this study, the findings indicated that incompatible behaviors served different functions in teacher education classrooms. The preservice teachers perceived punitive teacher responses to students’ negative behaviors as compelling, ineffective and mostly humiliating practices. The preservice teachers provided three main elements that affect their attitudes, behaviors and experiences in a teacher education classroom. These elements were related to students, teachers, and the context of the classroom. The preservice teachers perceived their positive or negative behaviors mostly as reactions to the behavior of the teacher and the classroom environment.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.141
Pages: 141-156
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4

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In the research, it was aimed to teach responsibility to the students, ensure and develop awareness of leadership behavior using a leadership program, and also examine the effectiveness of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model in terms of forming a leadership behavior. The study group consisted of 55 students in high school 1st grade attending Ankara Turkish Volleyball Federation Sports High School. In the study, mixed methods pattern with embedded semi-experimental pretest-posttest control group was used. While a 32-hour leadership program was being applied to the students in the experimental group, the current curriculum was continued to be taught for the students in the control group. As data collection tools, the Personal and Social Responsibility Behavior Scale, the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, a semi-structured individual interview form, and field notes were used. For findings; descriptive statistics and One-way Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used in the analysis of quantitative data, and content analysis method was used in the analysis of qualitative data. As a result, the leadership program including 16 lectures delivered during eight weeks was effective in terms of teaching responsibility to the students of Sports High School and forming and developing leadership behaviors.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.157
Pages: 157-168
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3

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The purpose of study is to examine the reliability of analytical rubrics and checklists developed for the assessment of story writing skills by means of generalizability theory. The study group consisted of 52 students attending the 5th grade at primary school and 20 raters in Mersin University. The G study was carried out with the fully crossed hxpxg (story x rater x performance task) design, where the scoring keys were determined as fix facet. Decision Study was carried out by changing the task facet conditions. As a result, it was observed in both scoring keys that the sources of variance related to the stories had a high variance percentage in the main effects while "hp (story and rater interaction effects)" a high variance percentage in the interaction effects. The highest variance in the design belongs to the interaction effect "hpg (story, rater and performance task interaction effects)". This can be an indicator for the existence of different sources of variability and error, which are not included in the design. Examining the G and phi coefficients calculated for both scoring keys, it was determined that scoring with analytic rubrics is more reliable and generalizable. According to the decision studies, it was decided that the number of tasks used in this study is to be most appropriate.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.169
Pages: 169-180
cloud_download 795
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3

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The purpose of the current study is to determine pre-service teachers’ opinions about 21st century learner and teacher skills. The study group of the current research is comprised of 391 senior students from an education faculty. As the data collection tool, the 21st century Learner Skills Use Questionnaire and 21st Century Teacher Skills Use Questionnaire were employed. In the analysis of the collected data, frequencies, percentages, arithmetic means, independent samples t-Test, One-Way Anova, Correlation, Mann Whitney-U, Kruskal Wallis techniques were used. The findings of the study revealed that the pre-service teachers’ opinions about 21st century learner and teacher skills vary significantly depending on the variables of gender, department attended, academic achievement, experience of private tutoring and practicum teaching (doing practicum teaching at elementary and secondary schools). As a result, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers are ready for using 21st century learner skills (cognitive skills, autonomous skills, collaboration and flexibility skills, innovativeness skills) and teacher skills (administrative skills, technopedagogical skills, affirmative skills, flexible teaching skills, generative skills). However, it was also found that the pre-service teachers were not able to make enough use of learner and teacher skills during their practicum teaching at schools. Moreover, a positive, medium and significant correlation was found between 21st century learner skills and 21st century teacher skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.181
Pages: 181-197
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42

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The present study aims to explore the experiences of prospective physical education teachers on active gaming. The study, which used qualitative case study design enrolled 2 prospective physical education teachers (1 male, 1 female) who were included in extracurricular activities and physical education classes in 2015-2016 academic year. For data collection, semi-structured interview forms, diaries and extended field notes were used. For data analysis, the content analysis method was used: following the transcription process, coding was performed in two categories and themes and sub-themes were created that reflect common codes. The findings have revealed that according to prospective teachers, active gaming ensures active participation of students and facilitates classroom management in physical education classes, which, in turn contributes to the learning environment where every student can participate. It also has been found that active gaming in the extracurricular activities contributes to the arousal of the initial participation desire in students, and establishment of an environment suitable for the improvement of physical competence. According to prospective teachers, active gaming should be used not in every part, but in certain parts of classes or of extracurricular activities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.199
Pages: 199-211
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667
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4

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The aim of this research is to examine the effects of creative writing activities on the reading and writing attitudes of fourth grade students. This research is a one-group pretest-posttest design of quantitative research methods. The study population of the study is the fourth grade students who are studying in Sorgun district of Yozgat province in Turkey. Cluster sampling was used in the sampling selection. A total of 35 students are in the sample. Creative writing activities were realized for the students for two months. Mean, standard deviation, paired samples t-test were used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the research, creative writing activities led to an increase in reading, writing and language lesson attitude of elementary school fourth graders. Increase in language lesson attitude is significant. The mean increase in Turkish lesson attitude scores was .39 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 3.43 to 3.82. The effect size statistic (r=.32) indicated a medium effect size.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.213
Pages: 213-220
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10

Participation in Leisure Activities as an Indicator of Inclusion: A comparison between Children with and without Disabilities in Portugal

participation leisure activities children with disabilities inclusion

Manuela Sanches-Ferreira , Sílvia Alves , Mónica Silveira-Maia , Manuela Gomes , Bárbara Santos , Pedro Lopes-dos-Santos


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Participation is recognised as an important indicator of school inclusion and educational success of children with and without disabilities and one of the fundamental human rights. In particular, the participation in leisure activities plays a vital role in children’s life and needs to be given a higher attention. The aim of the present exploratory study was to reflect on the inclusion of children with disabilities in Portuguese schools, by portraying and comparing their participation profiles in leisure activities to those of typically developing peers. The participation patterns in leisure activities of 61 children with disabilities and 114 children without disabilities were assessed. Results indicate that the pattern of participation of children with and without disabilities differs whether they are school or community-based activities. Regarding school-based activities, findings reveal that children with disabilities participate more frequently in these activities, but in solitary and constrained spaces at school compared to children without disabilities. For community contexts, our findings indicate that children with disabilities participate in less diverse activities than children without disabilities. In addition, the range of activities is correlated to their level of independence. This exploratory study contributes to an understanding of the pattern of participation of children with and without disabilities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.221
Pages: 221-232
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8

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This research aims to examine the current situation of multicultural education in elementary schools. Therefore, the views of the classroom teachers on multicultural education have been examined and multicultural education activities have been observed in the classes. Having a case study research method which is considered as one of the qualitative research designs, the study hosts a total of 15 classroom teachers who worked in the province of Elazig during the 2016 and 2017 academic year. The maximum variation sampling method has been used in the research. The research has employed semi-structured interview and observation forms. The research data has been analyzed through content analysis. Research results have revealed that most of the teachers perceive multicultural education as education presented to the individuals with different ethnic identities. Teachers' perceptions towards multicultural education have been identified to be similar in terms of their gender, seniority and educational status. Teachers mostly do student-centred activities related to multicultural education, use drama and case studies in their classes. While practising multicultural education, teachers mostly encounter with student-related problems. The majority of the people have recommended that parents be trained on the relevant subject. Similar results have emerged in the observations made by the researcher. Based on the research findings, several recommendations have been provided. Primary school curricula should be organized taking multicultural education into consideration, and the problems identified by teachers should be eliminated by those concerned.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.233
Pages: 233-247
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6

Self-Efficacy and the Use of Compensatory Strategies: A Study on EFL Learners

compensatory strategies self-efficacy efl learners

Aynur Kesen Mutlu , Mehdi Solhi Andarab , Cemil Gokhan Karacan


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This study aimed to explore the relationship between Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ self-efficacy level and their use of compensatory strategies (CSs). The study further searched into the most and the least frequently used CSs by Turkish EFL learners. The participants of the study were fifty university students enrolled in the department of English Language Teaching at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey.  Results indicated that the level of self-efficacy among Turkish learners of EFL was high. The top two most frequently used CSs by the learners were concluded to be the use of non-verbal signals (i.e., mime, gesture, facial expression) and circumlocution (i.e., describing an object or idea with a definition). In addition, the two least frequently used strategies were word coinage (i.e., creating a non-existent second language word based on a supposed rule) and avoidance (i.e., avoiding a topic, concept, grammatical construction, or phonological element that poses difficulty). The findings also revealed that the participants’ strategy use was not related to their degree of self-confidence.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.249
Pages: 249-255
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9

Evaluation of Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare Service among Nursing Students

culturally sensitive care simulation nursing student

Vesile Unver , Yasemin Uslu , Vildan Kocatepe , Sema Kuguoglu


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The aim of the study evaluates cultural sensitivity in healthcare services among senior nursing students to patients with different cultural backgrounds. The study had a one-group pre-posttest model descriptive study design. Thirty-four nursing students taking the courses Emergency Care and Diabetes were included into the study. Standardized patients were used as a simulation technique. The difference between intercultural sensitivity scores before the simulation and those after the simulation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Even though there were no differences between intercultural sensitivity scores before the simulation and the scores after the simulation, simulation based education is an effective teaching method in enhancement of cultural sensitivity.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.257
Pages: 257-265
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10

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The primary goal of this research is to explore absenteeism tendency, and the attitudes towards absenteeism and cheating of students who attended the teacher certificate program. In addition, this research aims to identify the views of students and lecturers on cheating and absenteeism. A sequential explanatory mixed-method research design was employed in this research. The sample of the quantitative data was 321 teacher certificate program students studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Turkey. Absenteeism tendency, cheating attitude and absenteeism attitude scales were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, correlation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interview forms. 14 students and 14 lecturers were interviewed, recorded, and transcribed. Qualitative data was analyzed through quantitative content analyses and descriptive analyses. Research findings show that verbal field students have significantly more positive cheating attitudes than quantitative field students. While cheating attitudes show no significant difference between genders, students in physical education departments have higher scores in the dimensions of environmental conditions and opportunity and ability than verbal and quantitative field students. Both students and lecturers describe cheating as “unfair behavior and plagiarism,” and absenteeism as a “right” in unavoidable situations. It is emphasized that the active participation of students in classes mostly depends on the instructor.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.267
Pages: 267-284
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2

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In the present study, the aim was to investigate 9th grade students’ geometrical figure apprehension. To this end, the Figure Apprehension Cognitive Processes Test (FACPT), constructed by the researchers of the study, was administered to 51 ninth grade students, with whom clinical interviews were also conducted. As a result of the data analysed, it was found that the perceptual, discursive and operative types of apprehension of more than half of the students were not at enough level for high school geometry. Most of the students were found to be unsuccessful in recognizing the various sub-figures present within a geometric figure, in transforming verbal information to visual information, in deriving at verbal information based on visual information, in arriving at conclusions without being influenced by the appearance of a figure, and in decomposing and recomposing geometric figures. This shows that teachers need to focus on not only conceptual knowledge but also the structure of the figure apprehension processes of students prior to geometry classes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.285
Pages: 285-300
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It can be said that effective development of intercultural sensitivity depends on the regulations and practices in the curriculum. Integrated program implementations are seen as one of the ways of regulation. In the study, a nested integration model was used in a single discipline. In this context, scientific research methods are considered as a discipline, and the achievements of this discipline and intercultural sensitivity development activities are integrated. Understanding different cultures correctly and not being prejudiced are very important for the development of intercultural sensitivity. Scientific research methods course provides students with scientific attitudes and behaviors. In this course, it is thought that students will be able to develop sensitivity by examining different cultures with scientific attitudes and behaviors. In this context, it is aimed to reveal the effectiveness of intercultural sensitization development activities integrated with scientific research methods course gains. The quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest and a control group was used in the study. The study group comprised of 86 second-grade students in the English Teacher Training Department. In order to measure the intercultural sensitivities of the students before and after the test procedure, the five-point likert type “Intercultural Sensitivity Scale” developed by Chen and Starosta and adapted to Turkish by Bulduk, Tosun and Ardic was used as data collection tool. It is concluded that the curriculum of scientific research methods integrated with intercultural sensitivity development activities is effective in developing students' intercultural sensitivities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.301
Pages: 301-312
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6

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Self-regulation is an active and constructive process in which students regulate and observe their own behaviour, motivations and cognition by setting their own goals during their learning process. In this study, the aim is to investigate the effects of biology laboratory practices that are supported by self-regulated learning strategies on students’ readiness for self-directed learning and their attitudes towards science experiments in laboratory settings. This study, which was undertaken as a quasi-experimental study in accordance with the pretest-posttest design with a control group, was implemented. Second year students who studied science teaching in the faculty of education at a state university in Konya in the academic year of 2018-2019 made up the sample of this study. There were two groups in the study which were “The Control Group” and “The Experimental Group”. In order to measure the students’ self-directed learning readiness levels, “Scale of Self-Directed Learning Readiness in Laboratory” was used and to measure attitudes towards science experiments “Scale of Attitudes towards Science Experiments” was utilized. Both scales were implemented as pre-tests before the study and as post-tests after the completion of the implementation process. The analysis of the data was conducted via SPSS 18. Independent samples t test was conducted to understand whether biology laboratory practices supported with self-regulated learning strategies have any effect on students’ readiness for self-directed learning and their attitudes towards science experiments in laboratories. According to the findings of the study, biology laboratory practices supported with self-regulated learning strategies were observed to make a significant difference in favour of the experimental group considering their self-directed learning readiness and their attitudes towards science experiments.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.313
Pages: 313-299
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10

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This study aims to evaluate the academic outcomes of the flipped classroom approach in the teaching of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Furthermore, it aims to activate the role of the teacher through encouraging both teachers and students to engage in active learning styles, while acknowledging individual differences. Participants consisted of 12 female undergraduates with hearing disabilities in a 251 CI course (applications of ICT in teaching and learning) at the College of Education, King Saud University. The study was applied throughout a semester on the contents of the course. The content material and pre-class assigned work (e.g. instructional videos and tasks) were delivered through Blackboard (learning management system), while active learning activities were carried out in class. Using mixed methods, students’ perceptions of their new learning environment were explored through a post-term questionnaire distributed at the end of the semester, in addition to writing a reflective report. Furthermore, participants were requested to write a reflective journal at the end of each lecture. Results indicated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom strategy for students. Moreover, the data indicate a positive impact on students' content learning and improved skills (e.g. collaboration and interaction). The content material which was developed for the specific course (251 CI) could be utilized for the remaining students enrolled in this course. The researcher recommends using the flipped classroom teaching strategy for courses in higher education, as the methodology can be extended and implemented through following a similar framework applied in this study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.325
Pages: 325-336
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10

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The research was conducted to determine the opinions of students (10-11 years) on their engagement to mathematics course. These students are 5th grade students at a secondary school in Turkey. Qualitative research method was used in the research. At the study, designed as case study, a total of seven secondary school students were participated the research. The study group was constituted with “snowball sampling” technique of purposeful sampling methods. The data was collected by a semi-structured interview form. Sixteen-page interviews obtained from the interviews were transferred to the computer. Data analysis was performed in content analysis. Codes were listed as a result of analysis. Common themes were constituted from the codes. As a result of the research, three themes, (cognitive, social and emotional engagement) eleven sub-themes and eighty nine codes were determined. It was seen that the students’ most preferred superficial strategies in terms of cognitive engagement; negative opinions towards group work in terms of social engagement; value given to math course in terms of emotional engagement. Students preferred least getting support sub-theme in terms of cognitive engagement; competitive sub-theme in terms of social engagement; value to the mathematics teacher sub-theme in terms of emotional engagement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.337
Pages: 337-348
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1

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This study aims to analyze whether academics’ organizational cynicism attitudes and levels of organizational identification in the field of sports sciences differ based on certain variables and determine if any relationship exists between these two variables. “Organizational Cynicism Scale” and “Academics’ Organizational Cynicism Scale” were applied to 106 academics as a data collection tool. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for nonparametric statistical data analysis. Bonferroni correction was taken into account in order to identify different groups. Spearman order correlation coefficient was calculated in order to identify the correlations among variables. The findings suggest that academics’ organizational cynicism and identification sub-dimensions did not display significant differences in terms of gender, marital status and academic title. However, significant differences were found among some sub-dimensions in terms of sufficiency of institution’s physical facilities, the status of place where the institution is located and financial aid from the institution. Additionally, negative and moderately significant correlations were found between all sub-dimensions of organization cynicism attitude and cognitive/behavioral/affective organizational identification sub-dimensions. It is considered that the present study will make important contributions to educational psychology thanks to its findings.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.349
Pages: 349-360
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In Turkey, as in all countries of the world, education is regarded as the sole means of modernization, progress, civilization, productivity, and sustainability of all these things. The aim of the Turkish education system is to raise students with the national, moral and cultural values of the Turkish nation, to educate them as citizens of a social law state, and solve the existing or potential problems that may arise in the future. The most important document that shows how this aim will be achieved in the country is the curriculum. The purpose of this study is to reveal the frequency of the social issues included in the current curriculum at the elementary education level. Within the scope of the study, social issues presented by sociologists were established through e-Delphi panels, coded under seven titles by researchers, those who were thought to bring solutions to these problems were counted by descriptive analysis method in the specific aims, themes and achievements of the curriculum used at elementary level. Results show that curriculum adopted at the elementary education level include mostly issues related to individual life and individualization, socialization, democratic life and democratization while economic issues, and issues related to family, environment and urbanization are emphasized less. These findings are discussed with other research results.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.361
Pages: 361-375
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The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between basketball referees' performance scores gained during a season and their self-efficacy levels. The study was conducted in correlational design and the accessible sampling method was used for the sample selection. The sample of the study consisted of 64 Class-B referees (2% (n=3) were females and 98% (n=61) were males) who actively served in the 2016-2017 season within Turkish Basketball Federation. A demographic information form, "The Referee Self-Efficacy Scale" developed by Karacam and Pulur, and performance scores calculated by the Central Arbitration Committee of Turkish Basketball Federation were used as data collection tools. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 21 and AMOS programs. The Pearson-Product Moments Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the relationships between the variables. As a result, a positive significant relationship was found between basketball referees' physical fitness, game knowledge, decision-making, pressure, communication, REFS total score, and their performance scores and the variables age and the number of matches refereed. Moreover, a positive significant relationship was found between basketball referees' physical fitness, game knowledge, decision-making, pressure, communication, and REFS total score and their performance scores.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.377
Pages: 377-382
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5

The Attitudes of Teachers towards Multicultural Education

multicultural education attitudes differences

Mehmet Fatih Karacabey , Mustafa Ozdere , Kivanc Bozkus


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The purpose of this study is to determine the teachers' attitudes toward multicultural education. This is a survey study and the participants of the study were 248 teachers who are teaching Turkish to the Syrian immigrants in Sanliurfa. The data for this study was collected through a 5-point Likert scale called "Teachers' Multicultural Attitude Scale". According to findings, it is determined that teachers have positive attitudes towards multicultural education. Their attitudes do not differ in a statistically significant way according to their gender, mother tongue, and professional seniority. Literature teachers were found to have more positive attitudes than class teachers. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that more research is needed on how to develop, alter teaching methods and programs according to multicultural education and why teachers of certain subjects have a more positive attitude towards multicultural education. Also, studies that investigate if teachers’ attitudes towards multicultural education affect students’ academic achievement, social adaptation processes and so on may provide useful information. The participation of teachers in cultural exchange programs, formal education, courses may be useful to raise their awareness and competency on multicultural education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.383
Pages: 383-393
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30

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