How is Multicultural Education Perceived in Elementary Schools in Turkey? A Case Study

Serkan Aslan

APA 6th edition
Aslan*, S. (2019). How is Multicultural Education Perceived in Elementary Schools in Turkey? A Case Study. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 233-247. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.233

Aslan* S. 2019 'How is Multicultural Education Perceived in Elementary Schools in Turkey? A Case Study', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 233-247. Available from:

Chicago 16th edition
Aslan*, Serkan . "How is Multicultural Education Perceived in Elementary Schools in Turkey? A Case Study". (2019)European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 1(2019): 233-247. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.233


This research aims to examine the current situation of multicultural education in elementary schools. Therefore, the views of the classroom teachers on multicultural education have been examined and multicultural education activities have been observed in the classes. Having a case study research method which is considered as one of the qualitative research designs, the study hosts a total of 15 classroom teachers who worked in the province of Elazig during the 2016 and 2017 academic year. The maximum variation sampling method has been used in the research. The research has employed semi-structured interview and observation forms. The research data has been analyzed through content analysis. Research results have revealed that most of the teachers perceive multicultural education as education presented to the individuals with different ethnic identities. Teachers' perceptions towards multicultural education have been identified to be similar in terms of their gender, seniority and educational status. Teachers mostly do student-centred activities related to multicultural education, use drama and case studies in their classes. While practising multicultural education, teachers mostly encounter with student-related problems. The majority of the people have recommended that parents be trained on the relevant subject. Similar results have emerged in the observations made by the researcher. Based on the research findings, several recommendations have been provided. Primary school curricula should be organized taking multicultural education into consideration, and the problems identified by teachers should be eliminated by those concerned.

Keywords: Multiculturalism; multicultural education; qualitative research; classroom teacher.


Akar, H. (2016). Case study. In A. Saban, & A. Ersoy (Eds.), Qualitative research designs at education (1st ed., pp.139-178). Ankara: Ani.

Akinlar, A. & Dogan, S. (2017). Investigating multicultural education phenomenon in minority and public high schools in Turkey: A multiple case study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 71, 1-20. doi: 10.14689/ejer.2017.71.1

Aktas, M. (2014). Qualitative data. In M. Metin (Ed.) Scientific research methods at education. (1st ed., pp. 331-371). Ankara: Pegem.

Aslan, S. (2017). An examination of the opinion of the social studies teachers on multicultural education. Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty, 18(2), 231-253.

Aydin, H. (2013). An applications and discussions of multicultural education at Turkey and World (1st ed.).  Ankara: Nobel.

Banks, J.A. (2008). An introduction to multicultural education (2th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Banks, A.J. (2013a). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. In J. A. Banks, & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (8th ed., pp. 2-24). Hoboken. NJ: Wiley.

Banks, J.A. (2013b). An introduction to multicultural education (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Basarir, F. (2012). Evaluation of pre-service teachers? opinions and self-efficacy perceptions about multicultural education (Erciyes University sample) (Unpublished master's thesis). Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Basarir, F., Sari, M., & Cetin, A. (2015). Examination of teachers’ perceptions of multicultural education. Journal of Pegem Education and Teaching, 4(2), 91-110.

Basbay, A., & Bektas, Y. (2009). Instructional environment and teacher competences in the context of multiculturalism. Education & Science, 34(152), 30-43.

Basbay, A., & Kagnici, D. Y. (2011). Perceptions of multicultural competence scale: A scale development study. Education & Science, 36(161), 199-212.

Berg, B.L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. (4th ed.) Boston: Ally and Bacon.

Bernard, H. R. (2006). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (4th ed.). New York:  AltaMira Press.

Brown, S.C., & Kysilka, M. (2002). Applying multicultural and global concepts in the classroom and beyond. (1st ed.)  Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bulut, C. (2014). The investigation of teachers' perceptions of multicultural competence (Unpublished master's thesis). Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Cresswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). London: SAGE.

DeWalt, H.R., & DeWalt, B.R. (2010). Participant observation: A guide for fieldworkers (2th ed.). New York: Alta Mira Press.

Dunn, R. (1997). The goals and track record of multicultural education. Education Leadership, 54(7), 74-77.

Ekiz, D. (2013). Scientific research methods (3rd ed.). Ankara: Ani.

Galley, C.C. (2001). Cultural policy, cultural heritage and regional development (Unpublished master’s thesis). The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey, USA.

Gay, G. (1994, November 9). A synthesis of scholarship in multicultural education. Retrieved from

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (2th ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Giddens, A. (2000). Runaway world: How globalisation is reshaping our lives (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

Given, L.M. (2008). The sage of encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Gorski, P. (2006). 2006. Complicity with conservatism: the do-politicizing of multicultural and intercultural education. Intercultural Education, 17(2), 163–177.

Guler, A., Halicioglu, M.B., & Tasgin, S. (2013). Qualitative research methods at social sciences (1st ed.).  Ankara: Seckin.

Guvenc, B. (1994). Human and culture (1st ed.).  Istanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.

Hohensee, B. J., Bission, J., & Derman-Sparks. L. (1992, November 11). Implementing an anti-bias curriculum in early childhood classrooms. Retrieved from

Hollins, E.R. (1996). Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Irvine, J. (1990). Black students and school failure. (1st ed.)  New York: Greenwood Press

Irvine, J., & Armento B.J. (2001). Culturally responsive teaching: Lesson planning for elementary and middle grades (1st ed.).  New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2012). Educational research quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. (4th ed.) London: SAGE.

Karasar, N. (2012). Scientific research method (24th ed.). Ankara: Nobel.

Kaya, I., & Aydin, H. (2014). Pluralism, multicultural & multilingual education (1st ed.). Ankara: Ani.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2th ed.) California: SAGE.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. (1st ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Marangoz, G. (2014). The perception of school administrators and teachers towards multicultural education (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bahcesehir  University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. (2th ed.) San Fransisco: Jossey–Bass Publishers.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A.M. (1996). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new materials. (3rd ed.) Thousand Oaks: Sage.

NAME. (2014). National association for multicultural education 24th annual international conference. Tucson, Arizona, November 2014. Paper presented: Dismantling Fronteras: How to Maneuver and Challenge the Bordered Society.

Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2011). Affirming diversity: the sociopolitical context of multicultural education. (6th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research evaluation methods. (3rd ed.) California: SAGE.

Polat, S. (2009). Probationary teachers’ level of inclination to multicultural education. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 1(1), 154-164.

Polit, D.F. & Back, C.T. (2010). Generalization in quantitative and qualitative research: Myths and strategies. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(11), 1451-1458.

Reitz, J. G. (2009). Assessing multiculturalism as a behavioural theory. In Multiculturalism and Social Cohesion (pp.1-47). Dordrecht: Springer.

San, I. (2002). Writing of creative drama (1985-1998) (1st ed.). Ankara: Naturel Publishing.

Sart, G. (2015). Phenomenology and explicative phenomenological analysis. In F.N. Seggie & F. Bayyurt (Ed.) Qualitative research: Method, technique, analysis and approaches (1st ed., pp. 70-81). Ankara: Ani.

Tikac, S. (2015). Using data analysis of qualitative research data program: Nvivo. In F.N. Seggie & F. Bayyurt (Ed.) Qualitative research: Method, technique, analysis and approaches (1st ed., pp. 260-370). Ankara: Ani.

Yildirim, S. (2016). Examining the relationships of knowledge, belief, attitude and self - efficiency of teachers toward multicultural education practice in Kosova.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Balikesir University, Balikesir.

Yildirim, A., & Simsek, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods at social sciences (8th ed.). Ankara: Seckin.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Designs and methods (8th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.