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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 11 Issue 2 (April 2022)

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It should be noted that learning outcomes are not students’ only achievement; attitude is also the main output in learning. This research explores students’ attitudes toward science learning based on gender and the grade level of schools in Aceh, Indonesia. The participants are 1,023 students from the sixth grade of primary schools and the eighth grade of secondary schools. The total sample includes 16 schools spread across the province. The data have been collected using TOSRA. By using the Likert scale, this questionnaire is useful for obtaining descriptions of the students’ attitudes and assigning scores for a certain group of participants. Based on gender, the results show females reflect more positive attitudes toward science than male students do. According to the grade level of the schools, the data reflect the equality of students’ attitudes toward science between primary and secondary schools. Nevertheless, when primary school students enter secondary school, the majority of students enjoy learning science less. This fact is meaningful feedback for science teachers. This result supports the scholars seeking ways to avoid the gender gap in learning activities. Pedagogical implications are also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.599
Pages: 599-608
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This research aimed to develop a historical thinking assessment for students' skills in analyzing the causality of historical events. The development process of Gall and colleagues and Rasch analysis models were used to develop an assessment instrument consisting of two processes, including the analysis of the framework of cause and consequence, the validity, reliability, and difficultness test. This research involved 150 senior high school students, with data collected using the validation sheet, tests, and scoring rubric. The results were in the form of an essay test consisting of six indicators of analyzing cause and consequence. The instruments were valid, reliable, and suitable for assessing students’ skills in analyzing the causality of historical events. The developed instruments were paired with a historical thinking skills assessment to improve the accuracy of the information about students' level of historical thinking skills in the learning history.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.609
Pages: 609-619
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1406
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Psychological Well-Being of School Counsellors Model

self-compassion counseling self-efficacy emotional intelligence spiritual intelligence psychological well-being school counselors

Nur Jannah Bali-Mahomed , Ku Suhaila Ku-Johari , Mohd Izwan Mahmud , Salleh Amat , Syazwani Saadon


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The school counselor’s role is increasingly challenging with various demands of students’ problems and the issue of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also affect students’ psychosocial and mental well-being. Therefore, school counselors need to equip themselves with high psychological well-being as a self-care factor to deal with burnout, instability, and work stress. This study aims to develop Psychological Well-Being Model among school counsellors. A total of 330 secondary school counsellors from four districts in Selangor were selected as the respondents using the group random sampling method. Data were collected through translated questionnaire instruments, namely Self Compassion Scale, Counselling Self Estimate Inventory, The Assessing Emotions Scale, Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale Revised, and Psychological Well Being-Ryff. Confirmation Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) show that there is a significant positive relationship between self-compassion, counselling self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, and the school counsellor’s psychological well-being. The findings also showed that self-compassion, counselling self-efficacy, emotional and spiritual intelligence affected 76.5% (R2 = 0.765) of variance in psychological well-being. This study is one of the earliest in presenting the school counsellor’s psychological well-being model who can contribute to Malaysian education. The implications of this study suggest that the elements of self-compassion, counselling self-efficacy, emotional and spiritual intelligence, and psychological well-being should be applied in the curriculum at the counsellor training level in university so that counsellors have adequate preparation in providing effective services in schools. The Ministry of Education Malaysia, on the other hand, needs to cultivate psychological well-being interventions regularly so that counsellors can always manage various students’ issues in schools as well as maintaining psychological well-being in terms of personnel and professionals.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.621
Pages: 621-638
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Computational thinking (CT) is a method for solving complex problems, but also gives people an inventive inspiration to adapt to our smart and changing society. Globally it has been considered as vital abilities for solving genuine issues successfully and efficiently in the 21st century. Recent studies have revealed that the nurture of CT mainly centered on measuring the technical skill. There is a lack of conceptualization and instruments that cogitate on CT disposition and attitudes. This study attends to these limitations by developing an instrument to measure CT concerning dispositions and attitudes. The instruments' validity and reliability testing were performed with the participation from secondary school students in Malaysia. The internal consistency reliability, standardized residual variance, construct validity and composite reliability were examined. The result revealed that the instrument validity was confirmed after removing items. The reliability and validity of the instrument have been verified. The findings established that all constructs are useful for assessing the disposition of computer science students. The implications for psychometric assessment were evident in terms of giving empirical evidence to corroborate theory-based constructs and also validating items' quality to appropriately represent the measurement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.639
Pages: 639-652
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774
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Most research has examined flipped learning within the context of face-to-face (F2F) instruction. However, previous research has not effectively explored the possibility of how online synchronous flipped learning influences pre-service teachers (PSTs) in teacher education programs during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Recognizing the gap in the literature, this paper explored three aspects of online synchronous flipped learning by understanding 1) PSTs' learner engagement, 2) self-directed learning, and 3) learner satisfaction in a Korean university. The data was collected from Korean PST's interviews, reflection notes, and course evaluations. The thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data sources. The study findings showed that PSTs favored a synchronous online FL because it encouraged them to engage in various collaborative activities through Zoom breakout sessions. Also, pre-class materials from online FL can positively enhance the PSTs' self-directed learning process. Based on these findings, this study provides suggestions on how to effectively implement online synchronous flipped learning in teacher education programs.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.653
Pages: 653-661
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11

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The positive effect of peer assessment and self-assessment strategies on learners' performance has been widely confirmed in experimental or quasi-experimental studies. However, whether peer and self-assessment within everyday mathematics teaching affect student learning and achievement, has rarely been studied. This study aimed to determine with what quality peer and self-assessment occur in everyday mathematics instruction and whether and which students benefit from it in terms of achievement and the learning process. Two lessons on division were video-recorded and rated to determine the quality of peer and self-assessment. Six hundred thirty-four students of fourth-grade primary school classes in German-speaking Switzerland participated in the study and completed a performance test on division. Multilevel analyses showed no general effect of the quality of peer or self-assessment on performance. However, high-quality self-assessment was beneficial for lower-performing students, who used a larger repertoire of calculation strategies, which helped them perform better. In conclusion, peer and self-assessment in real-life settings only have a small effect on the student performance in this Swiss study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.663
Pages: 663-680
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Moderating the Neuropsychological Impact of Online Learning on Psychology Students

higher education neuropsychological impact online learning psychology students

Valentyna Voloshyna , Inna Stepanenko , Anna Zinchenko , Nataliia Andriiashyna , Oksana Hohol


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The purpose of the study was to identify what neuropsychological effect online learning had on psychology students and how it could be moderated. The study was descriptive and combined qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research questions. The study relied on three phases such as baseline study, experiment, and reporting. The experiment utilised neuropsychology tests adopted from the NeurOn platform. It was found that the Psychology students’ perceptions of e-learning and their emotional reaction to them were found not to be appreciative. The practices in breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga were proved to be able to moderate the impact of online learning on the experimental group students’ attentional capacities, memory processes, and cognition abilities. The above findings were supported by the results obtained for the neuropsychology tests and the experimental group students’ self-reflections yielded from the use of the MovisensXS App. The students confirmed that breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga reduced study stress and burnout caused by e-learning and improved their academic performance. The focus group online discussion also showed that integration of breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga helped the experimental group students keep emotional balance, concentrate on their studies easier, remember more information, and meet deadlines in completing assignments. The education scientists are suggested to study how the e-learning curriculum could be reshaped so that it used relaxation practices on regular basis.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.681
Pages: 681-695
cloud_download 666
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The emergence of digital technologies and a more global and digital society has brought about the need to develop and educate in Digital Citizenship, as well as to study how youth are taught to participate and learn citizenship in a digital age. This paper aims to explore the role of digital and socio-civic skills development, as facilitators for youth participation and analyses the relationship between sociodemographic variables (sex, age, educational level, and political ideology) with the participatory profile of participants. This is a study with a quantitative methodology, where, based on non-probabilistic convenience sampling, 534 young people between 16 and 35 years old from Spain, completed an online questionnaire regarding the development of digital and socio-civic skills. The results indicate how a participant’s participatory profile is related to other variables. In addition, significant differences are observed between the different participation profiles and digital and socio-civic skills, underlining that the development of digital and socio-civic skills are essential for educating in digital citizenship.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.697
Pages: 697-709
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Research on instructional quality has been of great interest for several decades, leading to an immense and diverse body of literature. However, due to different definitions and operationalisations, the picture of what characteristics are important for instructional quality is not entirely clear. Therefore, in this paper, a scoping review was performed to provide an overview of existing evidence of both generic and subject-didactic characteristics with regard to student performance. More precisely, this paper aims to (a) identify both generic and subject-didactic characteristics affecting student performance in mathematics in secondary school, (b) cluster these characteristics into categories to show areas for quality teaching, and (c) analyse and assess the effects of these characteristics on student performance to rate the scientific evidence in the context of the articles considered. The results reveal that teaching characteristics, and not just the instruments for recording the quality of teaching as described in previous research, can be placed on a continuum ranging from generic to subject-didactic. Moreover, on account of the inconsistent definition of subject-didactic characteristics, the category of ‘subject-didactic specifics’ needs further development to establish it as a separate category in empirical research. Finally, this study represents a further step toward understanding the effects of teaching characteristics on student performance by providing an overview of teaching characteristics and their effects and evidence.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.711
Pages: 711-737
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Educational Robotics and Attention to Diversity: A Case Study

attention to diversity primary education robotics technology

José María Fernández-Batanero , Rocío Piñero-Virué , César Antonio Rodríguez-González , Miguel María Reyes-Rebollo


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In this study we focus our research on the case analysis of an eleven-year-old boy and his close relationship with technology, specifically robotics. The methodology of the study is experimental in nature, with the aim of improving the subject's attention span through robotics, thereby favouring his educational process and, consequently, his overall development. To this end, the attitudes, and aptitudes that this technological tool has provided the subject with are evaluated over a period of four years. Three data collection instruments were selected: questionnaire, interview, and observation. Among the conclusions we highlight, on the one hand, that the older the age and the greater the interest in robotics, the greater the individual's attention span and greater psychomotor coordination, increasing the improvement in the educational process and in their daily life. On the other hand, robotics is an effective way of orienting knowledge towards the personal and educational sphere and can provide advantages in integral development.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.739
Pages: 739-748
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443
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The effects of international phonetic alphabet (IPA) instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL) adult learners’ pronunciation have been well-recognized. However, not many studies on the topic were conducted in the Vietnamese context. Therefore, the current study aims to investigate (1) the impact of IPA learning on Vietnamese EFL adult learners’ pronunciation and (2) adult learners’ perceptions of the effects of learning the IPA system on their pronunciation. The study was designed as an experimental study, following a mixed-methods approach, using the pre-and-post-tests, questionnaires, and interviews to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Thirty-eight adult learners took part in this investigation; they were divided into two groups, nineteen in the control and nineteen in the experimental group. The experimental study lasted ten weeks before the questionnaires and interviews were administered with the participants in the experimental group. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in adult learners’ pronunciation in the experimental group. The participants in the experimental group also highly perceived the positive effects of learning the IPA system on their pronunciation. Pedagogical implications and suggestions were presented at the end of the paper.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.749
Pages: 749-761
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The field of education was distinctly affected by the development of information and communication technologies, as they can make education more efficient, interactive, and available. Today’s students call for new innovative educational approaches. Digital communication technologies are the organic part of their life and they are group-oriented and experienced users of these technologies. Information and communication technologies must be used in a new and more interactive way to motivate this new generation of students. One of the ways might be gamified learning. The gamification of education is an approach, which uses game practices and elements in a process of learning. Its main objective is to increase students' interest in learned topics and to motivate them to endure in learning. The gamification of the educational process is introduced in the curricula of several courses at our faculty. The paper aims to give a short overview of tools and methods of gamification of the education process. In addition to that, the implementation of gamification in our learning management system Moodle-supported business informatics course is presented.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.763
Pages: 763-779
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7

Motivation and Grit Affects Undergraduate Students’ English Language Performance

english language performance english learning motivation grit psychology

Yun Tao Wu , Lydia Yoke Yean Foong , Noryati Alias


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This study aims to explore non-English speaking major student’s perceptions of Motivation and Grit and the relationship between these two factors and students’ English language performance at a public university in China. The research was conducted by quantitative research design to collect 624 non-English speaking Major students’ answers to multiple questionnaires at a public university in China. Data analysis is used by SPSS and AMOS. The study shows that Motivation and Grit all have a positive correlation with English language performance. One major conclusion of this study is Grit has the most significant effect on the English language performance of non-English speaking major students in multiple regression analysis and is also the best predictor of the relationship between these two factors and English language performance in the path analysis in Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The finding also revealed that male students’ perception of motivation and grit is slightly stronger than that of female students. These findings highlight the need for English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher to understand students’ affective factors in learning English, and hence help them utilize different teaching methods to enhance students’ English learning and promote sustainable development of English learning in a public Chinese university.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.781
Pages: 781-794
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10

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English teachers had to retrain and build a new normal in order to prepare for an online classroom while keeping their teaching pedagogy and professional identity as a result of the sudden changes brought by the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in education. In this study, the effect of English teachers' professional identity transformations, attitudes toward online teaching was explored. The study's sample comprises 130 English as a foreign language (EFL) lecturers from a state and a foundation university in Turkey. The research data was gathered from a questionnaire, the Teacher Professional Identity scale, and a semi-structured interview with 12 volunteers. Qualitative data collected via semi-structured interviews were apportioned into pattern coding and analyzed through content analysis. EFL lecturers did not appear to be properly prepared for their online pedagogical and technological difficulties, which had a deeply corrosive effect on teachers' professional identities as they shift away from face-to-face education. The results showed that participants who were educated on EduTech during their undergraduate education or as professional development affected their perceptions of professional identity throughout the transition to online language teaching. Future studies can broaden the field of study by making use of exploratory action research, awareness of the teaching community, and continued professional development.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.795
Pages: 795-804
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2

Students’ External Representation Patterns of Suspending Objects in Static Fluid

external representation pattern floating sinking static fluid suspending

Jusman Mansyur , I Komang Werdhiana , Darsikin Darsikin , Sarintan N. Kaharu , Nurgan Tadeko


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This study aims to explore the pattern of external representation of suspending objects in a static fluid. The study used a qualitative descriptive method involving 57 elementary, junior, senior school, and university students. Data collection implemented a 30-item test covering the dominant context of suspending and partially floating and sinking.  Some of phenomenographic steps were adapted in data analysis. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded that there is a dominant external representation pattern, where there is a simplification of the depiction of suspending objects. Suspending position tends to be locked in a limited area, namely in the middle of the depth of the liquid. In the context of suspending objects' cuts, the cuts were generally represented by an upward shifting pattern. Factors that influence the pattern of representation are the involvement of intuition in conceptualizing the phenomena presented, and the conceptual aspect of density has not been integrated into the reasoning process for compiling external representations, both diagrams, and texts. Research limitation is presented in this article.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.805
Pages: 805-820
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Cognitive processes are procedures for using existing knowledge to combine it with new knowledge and make decisions based on that knowledge. This study aims to identify the cognitive structure of students during information processing based on the level of algebraic reasoning ability. This type of research is qualitative with exploratory methods. The data collection technique used began by providing a valid and reliable test instrument for algebraic reasoning abilities for six mathematics education student programs at the Islamic University of Sultan Agung Indonesia. Subjects were selected based on the level of upper, middle, and lower algebraic reasoning abilities. The results showed that (1) students with the highest level of algebraic reasoning ability meet the logical structure of Logical Reasoning which shows that students at the upper level can find patterns and can generalize; (2) Students at the intermediate level understand the cognitive structure of Symbolic Representations, where students can make connections between knowledge and experience and look for patterns and relationships but have difficulty making rules and generalizations; (3) students at lower levels understand the cognitive structure of Comparative Thinking, where students are only able to make connections between prior knowledge and experience.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.821
Pages: 821-836
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2

The COVID-19 Pandemic’s Impact on 9th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement

covid-19 high-school mathematics spain

Lidon Moliner , Francisco Alegre , Gil Lorenzo-Valentin


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In this research, the influence of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on 9th grade students’ mathematics achievement is analyzed through quantitative and qualitative methods. A posttest only with control group design was used to compare the mathematics marks of 9th grade students from the previous school year (before the pandemic, control group) and the current school year (during the pandemic, experimental group). Seventy-three students from a public high school in Spain attending class on alternate days participated in the study. Three focus group sessions were held with students, and five semi-structured interviews were conducted—two with teachers and three with students’ families. Results show statistically significant differences in students’ mathematics achievement, with students enrolled in 9th grade the previous (pre-pandemic) year outscoring their peers currently enrolled in 9th grade (during the pandemic) by 22.17%. An overall negative effect size of Hedge’s g = -1.11 was reported. Although significant statistical differences between groups were reported for both male and female students, the effect was 42.31% larger for male students (Hedge’s g = -1.11) than for females (Hedge’s g = -0.78). The qualitative information supported the quantitative results. Changes in educational settings, students’ lack of motivation, monotony, and students’ level of responsibility were qualitatively reported as factors that may explain this phenomenon. The main conclusion of this study is that the COVID-19 pandemic may be significantly and negatively affecting 9th grade students’ mathematics achievement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.835
Pages: 835-845
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3

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The higher educational institution needs a group of dedicated and committed lecturers to endure the institution during these turbulent times. As the organizational commitment reflects the self-identification of an employee with the organization, it has far-reaching implications on multifarious aspects in the organization. This present study investigated whether job satisfaction could mediate the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment. A total of 452 lecturers from Heilongjiang province in China participated in this study. Structural equation modelling showed that job satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between the dimensions of learning organization and organization, specifically on the effect of continuous learning, connection, and strategic leadership. Job satisfaction is also found to be a stronger predictor of organizational commitment than learning organization. These findings are discussed thoroughly and recommended a holistic plan to be devised that could strengthen learning organization and job satisfaction of lecturers in various aspects of the organization.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.847
Pages: 847-858
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4

Validating Student’s Green Character Instrument Using Factor and Rasch Model

green character instrument factor and rasch analysis

Akhmad Sukri , Muhammad Arief Rizka , Elly Purwanti , Siti Ramdiah , Marheny Lukitasari


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Many researchers have separately developed instruments to measure environmental characteristics such as attitudes, values, and knowledge. However, there is no instrument used to measure all these aspects in one comprehensive instrument. This study is meant to develop and validate a green character instrument which reveals student behavior and awareness of the environment. The instrument consists of 40 statement items consisting of 5 aspects, namely private pro-environmental behavior, public pro-environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, and environmental attitudes. It was implemented on 1,398 students from 15 universities in Indonesia. The instrument content validation was analyzed by three experts using content validity index (CVI). The construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and RASCH analysis. The content validity results obtained CVI scores ranging between 0.8 and 0.9 with a good category, while item reliability was in a fairly good category with a high level of separation index. Construct validation resulted in 34 items (4 items were eliminated after Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and 2 items were eliminated after RASCH analysis) spread over five constructs, namely environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, environmental attitudes, and environmental habits. The resulting instrument has a good level of item difficulty, with a well understood response set which can be understood easily by respondents, and without bias. Therefore, it can be used to measure the students’ green character on both male and female.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.859
Pages: 859-872
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1

Parental Obstacles During Distance Learning Mathematics in Indonesia: A Phenomenology Study

covid-19 distance learning mathematics panic-gogy phenomenology

Muhamad Galang Isnawan , Didi Suryadi , Turmudi Turmudi , Marfuah Marfuah


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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an inevitable shift from face-to-face to distance learning, a phenomenon known as panic-gogy. Parents are the main students’ companions while studying at home. Although various studies show the constraints in this condition, few employ phenomenology that accurately describes people’s experience regarding a situation. Therefore, this study aimed to describe parents’ experience during distance learning mathematics using a phenomenology approach. The participants comprised 71 35-50-year-old parents of junior high school students. A Google form with open-ended questions was used as the main instrument in data collection. Data were analyzed using NVivo-12-assisted thematic analysis in coding, while source triangulation was used to strengthen the data trustworthiness. The results showed that students did not learn the content well due to poor explanations by the teacher. Furthermore, they did not study well at home due to signal constraints and quota limitations. This study recommends blended learning by combining limited face-to-face and online learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.873
Pages: 873-883
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3

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The online flipped classroom has become increasingly applied to provide students with active learning. This search aimed to investigate the effectiveness of video lectures in an online flipped learning on students’ learning outcomes, students' video evaluation, and their experience in an online flipped classroom. This study employed mixed-method research implementing a quasi-experimental design using quantitative and qualitative data collection: pre-test and post-test, a questionnaire and interview. The participants were 78 Indonesian undergraduate students taking English as a foreign language (EFL) content course at one of the universities in Indonesia. The findings revealed that the students’ learning outcomes in the flipped classroom outperformed those in the control group. The students’ evaluation of the video lectures was high, and their evaluation was consistent with how they positively perceived the video lectures in the flipped classroom. This investigation showed the roles of video lectures on the students' participation and active learning in the flipped classroom during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic time.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.885
Pages: 885-898
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This study presents an inquiry-based teaching approach using a rich methodology involving STEM (science-technology-engineering and mathematics) projects, developed using a cooperative way to work between schools and research centres. We describe the teaching pattern scenario with students, teachers, and scientists. We also illustrate the learning process, conducted through two inquiry-based problems in Biochemistry, the mutagenesis process and the transgenesis effects caused by inoculation of bacteria. The teaching sequence, as well as the scientific knowledge and students’ competencies involved, are shown. We then analyse the students' and teachers' perceptions in this scenario regarding the development of students' STEM learning through their inquiry skills promoted and concerning predictors to vocational careers involved (students’ identities as potential scientists, scientific attitudes, social implications towards science or students´ agency). Finally, we add some conclusions and contributions to teaching STEM education, related to factors of the design teaching scenario that bring connections with the interests and motivations of students, such as the relevance of the projects to evoke understanding of processes or causal relationships of content or the teacher's professionalisation supported by a proper allocation between scientists and teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.899
Pages: 899-915
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This study examined the impact of modular distance learning on students' motivation, interest/attitude, anxiety and achievement in mathematics. This was done at the Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines during the first and second grading of the academic year 2021-2022. The study included both a descriptive-comparative and descriptive-correlational research design. The 207 high school students were chosen using stratified sampling. According to the findings, students have a very satisfactory rating in mathematics. Students agree that they are motivated, enthusiastic, and have a positive attitude toward mathematics. They do, however, agree that mathematics causes them anxiety. When students are subdivided based on sex, their mathematics interest and anxiety differ significantly. However, there was no significant difference in interest/attitude and achievement. When students are divided into age groups, their mathematics motivation, interest/attitude, anxiety, and achievement differ significantly. Students' motivation, anxiety, and achievement differ significantly by year level. There was a positive relationship between and among mathematics motivation, interest/attitude, and achievement. However, there is a negative association between mathematics anxiety and mathematics motivation; mathematics anxiety and mathematical interest/attitude; and mathematics anxiety and mathematical performance. The study's theoretical and practical implications were also discussed, and recommendations for educators and researchers were given.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.917
Pages: 917-934
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Scopus
8

Construction of the Character Assessment Instrument for 21st Century Students in High Schools

assessment construct character validity reliability

Wiwin Mistiani , Edi Istiyono , Amir Syamsudin


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The study of character becomes a very important discussion in the 21st century. So that the integration of character values is very important both in the process and in educational assessment. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the character assessment instrument for 21st-century high school students. The research approach used was quantitative with a sample of 200 high school students. Data analysis carried out includes validity and reliability tests. The test results of the instrument showed that the construct of the student character assessment instrument was declared valid and reliable. The content validity test shows the value of Aiken's > .80 in the high category. In the construct validation test with EFA, all variables have a loading factor > .5. In the CFA test, the model is declared fit with the estimated standard loading value of .40 and the t-count value > 1.96. Meanwhile, while in testing the reliability of the instrument obtained composite > .70 Cronbach's Alpha reliability > .70 which means reliable. So that this instrument is declared valid and reliable to measure the character of students in high school.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.935
Pages: 935-947
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547
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3

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Modern technology is necessary and important for improving the quality of education. While machine learning algorithms to support students remain limited. Thus, it is necessary to inspire educational scholars and educational technologists. This research therefore has three main targets: to educate the holistic context of rural education management, to study the relationship of continuing education at the upper secondary level, and to construct an appropriate education program prediction model for high school students in a rural school. The data for research is the academic achievement data of 1,859 students from Manchasuksa School at Mancha Khiri District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, during the academic year 2015-2020. Research tools are separated into 2 sections. The first section is a basic statistical analysis step, it composes of frequency analysis, percentage analysis, mean analysis, and standard deviation analysis. Another section is the data mining analysis phase, which consists of discretization technique, XGBoost classification technique (Decision Tree, Gradient Boosted Trees, and Random Forest), confusion matrix performance analysis, and cross-validation performance analysis. At the end, the research results found that the reasonable distribution level of student achievement consisted of four clusters classified by academic achievement. All four clusters were modeled on predicting academic achievement for the next generation of students. In addition, there are four success models in this research. For future research, the researcher aims to develop an application to facilitate instruction for learners by integrating prediction models into the mobile application to promote the utilization of modern technology.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.949
Pages: 949-963
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931
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973
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4

Scopus
7

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Teachers´ life-long learning and occupational well-being is significant in promoting educational goals and professional development. The aim of the study was to determine which factors contribute to teacher educators´ commitment to work and give them energy for work and self-development. The research data consisted of 24 teacher educators in Oulu University of Applied Sciences. The research method of this case study was a qualitative, thematic content analysis, the research approach phenomenography. The most important single factor seemed to be the community of teachers, students and the administrative staff which are included in dialogue and collaboration. Emotions, meaningfulness, and interaction play an important role, often via pedagogical fellowship. Committed teacher educators take responsibility for workplace culture and transformation of teaching. Positive attitudes, motivation, reflection, and dialogue seem to be connected to professional capability and the ethos of teacher educators´ work.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.965
Pages: 965-980
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370
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608
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5

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1

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Teacher leadership theory has underlined the essence of teacher collaboration (TC) in helping students learn better. Also, many studies and theories have argued that TC can be an effective way to provide learning feedback. Thus, this mixed-method study aimed to experimentally examine the effect of teacher collaborative metacognitive feedback (TCMF) on educational management (EM) students’ metacognition, to see the different effects on EM students’ metacognition as affected by TCMF and by individual teaching metacognitive feedback (ITMF), and to qualitatively probe into students’ perceptions of teacher collaboration. The quantitative study conducted a quasi-experimental method by involving 44 EM students. A valid and reliable scale of metacognition adopted from a previous study was utilized as the instrument of data collection. The qualitative study conducted interviews with 8 students selected purposively, and the data were analyzed interactively to reach credible information. This study revealed that TCMF positively and significantly affected EM students’ metacognition. TCMF contributed to EM students’ metacognition better than ITMF did. The students perceived that TC developed their collaborative skills, continuously supporting their critical thinking skills, intercultural communicative competence, and problem-solving skills. Limitations, implications, and recommendations for further research are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.981
Pages: 981-993
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653
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717
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5

Scopus
6

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Entrepreneurs play an important role in improving a country’s economy, shown by the increase in young people involved in startup businesses, including students. The young generation needs motivation through a good education to support their intention. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the role of entrepreneurship education in increasing entrepreneurial intention among business students. The data were obtained from 240 business students in Indonesia using a questionnaire. The study was conducted using descriptive methods and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Hypothesis testing showed that perceived desirability is the strongest variable on the entrepreneurial intention of business students. Furthermore, the R-Square test results showed that entrepreneurial intentions are positively and significantly influenced by perceived desirability and feasibility, the propensity to act, and entrepreneurship education by 61.12%. The remaining 38.88% is influenced by other variables outside this study. The key impact of this research is revealed perceived desirability and feasibility, the propensity to act and entrepreneurship education give positive entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students. Higher education has responsibility to nurture young generation to learn more about entrepreneurship. The increasing number of entrepreneurs can support government to improve the nation’s economy and society.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.995
Pages: 995-1008
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1008
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1230
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14

Scopus
15

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The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of professional learning community of pedagogical instructors, training teachers, and teaching students in clinical model for teacher education to their professional development. The prior is carried out through examining a variety of categories: namely, collaborative learning, personal responsibility, collective responsibility, reflective pedagogical discourse and action research, knowledge development and learning processes. Thirty-three members of the learning community constituted the study community. The research tool is a multiple-choice questionnaire that was developed for the requirements of the research and personal feedback on open-ended questions. The quantitative data collected by the questionnaire indicated that the learning community of the clinical model for teacher education contributed greatly to the professional development of all participants regardless of field of knowledge, role in the training process, and the curricular activities offered by colleges and schools. The findings revealed a negative relationship between the field of teacher education among the participants on the one hand, and professional development on the other hand.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1009
Pages: 1009-1022
cloud_download 886
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886
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881
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2

Scopus
2

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This paper is a quasi-experimental investigation into the effectiveness of using analogy in teaching new and unfamiliar physics concepts to students enrolled in a British curriculum school in the United Arab Emirates. The students (N = 34) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the control group (N = 17) following the traditional teaching method, and the experimental group (N = 17) using the student-centered analogical method. The students relied on previous class knowledge to construct models, which in turn helped them explore new ideas and derive new knowledge. Pre-tests and post-tests were given to the two groups, where the post-test (test 6) results confirmed that the experimental group showed a more consistent outcome of high grades, no failure, and good homogeneity of results. On the other hand, the control group kept fluctuating around the same level in the all-study’s tests (pre-test and repeated measures (tests 2,3,4 and 5). The effect size of the intervention was very large and practically important, at Cohen’s d = 2.35. As a result, analogy-based pedagogies have demonstrated impact on students' learning performance and perceptions. Consequently, the result is capable of providing significant insights for educational policy and curriculum development.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1023
Pages: 1023-1036
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518
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722
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2

Scopus
0

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Recently, researchers have paid more attention to the aspects of classroom learning environments because of their effects on students’ cognitive and effective outcomes. However, current literature reveals the lack of research that explores the factors of classroom environments in Vietnamese context. The present study, therefore, aims to validate the psychometric properties of the 25-items version of the My Class Inventory (MCI), translated into Vietnamese for 487 secondary school students. Factorial analysis showed an acceptable fit for the four-factors structure of the MCI – cohesiveness, competitiveness, satisfaction, and friction – to be appropriate for secondary school students. Internal consistency reliabilities of the general scales and four subscales were satisfactory. Results support the suitability of the MCI to assess students’ classroom environment within Vietnam’s educational context. The study recommended, among other things, that future studies should be conducted to explore the validity of the MCI on other samples of Vietnamese secondary students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1037
Pages: 1037-1045
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384
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610
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Scopus
0

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Regardless of varied lingua-cultural ideologies enriching the theories of communicative competence (CC), the four CC dimensions (e.g., linguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse, and communication strategies (CSs)) still become the main cores of English speaking (ES) classrooms. Of the four dimensions, CSs seem to be the most technical which deserve to be persistently studied. Hence, this study aimed to probe into ES lecturers’ performances of CSs, their efforts to improve students’ CC, and the impacts of their efforts on students’ learning according to students’ perspectives. Two ES lecturers and 10 students at a university in Indonesia were purposively selected to be the participants. They were observed and interviewed according to the study’s purposes. This study uncovered various CSs performed by ES lecturers according to several contexts, such as to understand spoken texts, to understand spoken recorded texts, and to overcome temporary communication difficulties. Various ES lecturers’ efforts were also revealed according to their functions to improve each dimension of CC. Most students perceived the lecturers’ efforts positively due to the impacts on their motivation, self-efficacy, collaborative skills, and metacognition. However, few students echoed negative perceptions about a lecturer’s native-speakerism-endorsed effort due to lingua-cultural issues. Implication, limitation, and recommendation are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1047
Pages: 1047-1062
cloud_download 691
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3
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691
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773
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3

Scopus
1

The Impact of Evolutionary Education on Knowledge and Understanding the Evolution

acceptance evolution education knowledge misconception understanding

Romana Martincová , Jana Fančovičová , Ivan Iľko , Viera Peterková


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Evolution is one of the most difficult and controversial topics. Scientific knowledge of evolution should belong to general knowledge of people, it should be the part of their natural science knowledge or biological education because it is the basis for accepting or refusing of other important topics such as genetical modification, global climatic change and others. Our aim was to analyse the inclusion of evolution in the teaching process in Slovakia in the subjects of history and biology and the associated potential threats to the formation of misconceptions. We measured the level of knowledge and understanding of evolution and evolutionary processes among high school graduates (N = 200). In doing so, we hypothesized that graduating high school students who have received evolutionary education achieve higher levels of both knowledge and understanding of evolutionary processes compared to those who have not received such education. We hypothesized that interest in science and acceptance of evolution would also positively influence levels of knowledge about evolutionary phenomena and understanding of evolutionary processes. Having used research, we claimed the impact of interest in natural science. We suggest to include the evolution as a main topic of biology into education through exploration- oriented teaching.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1063
Pages: 1063-1073
cloud_download 535
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535
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598
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2

Scopus
2

Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers’ Numerical Thinking Profiles

numerical thinking reasoning self-efficacy

Fitrianto Eko Subekti , Yohanes Leonardus Sukestiyarno , Wardono , Isnaini Rosyida


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Numerical thinking is needed to recognize, interpret, determine patterns, and solve problems that contain the context of life. Self-efficacy is one aspect that supports the numerical thinking process. This study aims to obtain a numerical thinking profile of Mathematics pre-service teachers based on self-efficacy. This study used descriptive qualitative method. The data obtained were based on the results of questionnaires, tests, and interviews. The results of the self-efficacy questionnaire were analyzed and categorized (high, moderate, and low). Two informants took each category. The results showed the following: informants in the high self-efficacy category tend to be able to interpret information, communicate information, and solve problems with systematic steps. Informants in the moderate self-efficacy category tend to be able to interpret and communicate information, but tend to be hesitant in choosing the sequence of problem-solving steps. Meanwhile, informants in the low self-efficacy category tend not to be able to fully interpret the information. As a result, the process of communicating information and solving problems goes wrong. Another aspect found in this study is the need for experience optimization, a good understanding of mathematical content, and reasoning in the numerical thinking process.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1075
Pages: 1075-1087
cloud_download 853
visibility 974
2
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853
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974
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2

Scopus
2

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This study aimed to investigate essential employability skills for English as a foreign language (EFL) students in the Mekong Delta for the context of the 21st century. It was also to determine the similarities and differences between the important employability skills from the perspectives of the employers and EFL students. In this study, a questionnaire was delivered to EFL students who were juniors and seniors at a university in the South of Vietnam, majoring in English Education and English Studies (English Interpreter). At the same time, interviews were realized on both EFL students and employers. The findings showed that both EFL students and employers highlighted the attributes of self-confidence, receptiveness to feedback, and the use of body language in communication. The types of employability skills are similarly recognized among employers and EFL students in the same fields of employment. However, a significant difference was also found among employers on different job-specific skills. The results also indicated that EFL undergraduates were all highly aware of preparing the employability skills for their future professions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1089
Pages: 1089-1102
cloud_download 389
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389
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514
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0

Scopus
1

What Teachers Tell Us About the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Education in Italy

covid-19 online teaching students with special needs teaching practice

Gisella Decarli , Luca Surian , Michela Vignoli , Laura Franchin


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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) state of emergency has brought about a radical change in the way of teaching. In a questionnaire, we asked 120 teachers from Italian Primary, Middle and High Schools about the advantages and disadvantages of online teaching, the students’ conduct during lessons and the methodologies applied to students with special educational needs. Primary School teachers most strongly reported an increase in boredom and distraction, and disagreed that online teaching helps students’ learning and that it makes them more active. The main advantage of online teaching was the technical and methodological innovations, while the main disadvantage was the lack of relationship with students. In the case of students with special educational needs, many teachers reported that they used simplified procedures and personalized meetings. Overall, teachers appear to think that online teaching has many drawbacks, though it also has some positive aspects that need to be appreciated and exploited.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1103
Pages: 1103-1114
cloud_download 485
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2
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485
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540
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2

Scopus
1

Access, Efficiency, Inconvenience, and Scarcity as Issues of Online and Distance Learning in Higher Education

distance learning issues on online and distance education student perception

Yagya Prasad Gnawali , Parshu Ram Upadhayaya , Bishnu Sharma , Shashidhar Belbase


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This study aimed to explore online and distance learning (ODL) issues related to higher education during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Nepal. We applied an online survey design with a five-point Likert scale. We surveyed 71 (57 male and 14 female) postgraduate students in science education at a public higher education institution in Kathmandu, Nepal. A Principal Component Analysis identified four major constructs as the components of ODL issues. They are scarcity, efficiency, access, and inconvenience. The results of the Independent Samples Test (t-test and ANOVA) showed that participants' views about scarcity were significantly different across their gender (male and female) and device use (mobile, laptop, and desktop). They were not significantly different in their views about efficiency, access, and inconvenience across gender, device use, hometown, age group, ethnicity, and school type at .05 level of significance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1115
Pages: 1115-1131
cloud_download 667
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7
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667
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673
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7

Scopus
7

A Bibliometric Review on Realistic Mathematics Education in Scopus Database Between 1972-2019

bibliometrics mathematics education mathematics in context realistic mathematics education scopus

Tinh Thi Phan , Thi Trinh Do , Thanh Hai Trinh , Trung Tran , Huu Tong Duong , Thi Phuong Thao Trinh , Bao Chau Do , Tien-Trung Nguyen


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Despite receiving increasing attention from mathematics education scholars, there has not yet been any overall understanding of the current state of realistic mathematics education (RME). To address this gap, this study aims to provide a review of 288 studies on realistic mathematics education from the Scopus database between 1972 and 2019. Using descriptive and bibliometric analyses, this study addresses four research issues as follows: (i) the total volume, growth trajectory, and geographic distribution; (ii) the most influencing authors and research groups; (iii) the most influencing sources (i.e., journals, books, conferences); and (iv) the most important topics. Several implications for not only mathematics education scholars but also other stakeholders, including policymakers, school managers, mathematics teachers, may not be considered in this study.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1133
Pages: 1133-1149
cloud_download 1032
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12
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1032
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1089
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12

Scopus
11

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In the paper, we explore the potential of sketchnoting as a tool for constructing learner´s knowledge. Sketchnoting is non-linear note-taking method that combines text and visual elements to express knowledge in a complex form, and is represented by text, symbols, arrows, frames, and other visual elements. Drawing on theory of dual coding and theory of multimedia learning, it is argued that a learner retains information more permanently if they process it verbally and visually at the same time. Sketchnoting can be effectively implemented in a learning process. We illustrate sketchnoting as a supportive learning tool by empirical study with learners at geography lessons in a secondary grammar school. We assessed twenty students´ first sketchnotes and found out most of them focused on facts rather than relations. It is therefore suggested that teachers draw more attention to organisation, structure and interrelations of the elements of knowledge in sketchnote when introducing it first to learners.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1151
Pages: 1151-1159
cloud_download 512
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512
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659
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0

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0

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Lesson planning is considered to be an important and efficient tool for effective teaching and learning process. Preparations of effective lesson plan requires teachers to be competent in the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study investigated how the mathematics teachers’ PCK impact their competences on designing effective lesson plans. Twelve in-service mathematics teachers from public secondary schools in Unguja-Island (Zanzibar) of Tanzania were involved. The data were collected using the reviewing of the teachers’ mathematics lesson plan documents and teachers’ interview. The data were analyzed in both quantitative and qualitative mode based on the lesson plan framework guideline (LPFG) and the criteria for better planning of the sections jointly with PCK abilities indicators. The percentage average of occurrence of the sections in the teachers’ designed lesson plan (DLP) and the percentage of occurrence of different category within the sections of the DLP in relation to the criteria were determined. Also, the challenges faced by the teachers in their DLP were identified. The result of the analysis revealed that the PCK competences of mathematics teachers are not good enough to impact their DLP, as some of their designing lesson plan sections were occurred inconsistently. Also, the implementation of PCK competences for effective mathematics teaching found to be at developing stage, as some criteria related to it were not clearly observed in their DLP. The study recommends the demand of in-service training for mathematics teachers on the implementation of teachers’ competences particularly PCK in the lesson plan designing for effective classroom practices.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1161
Pages: 1161-1182
cloud_download 604
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604
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830
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2

Scopus
2

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Technological tools are means by which online teaching could encourage the engagement of students, especially elementary students. The present research studies how elementary teachers develop their use of technological tools in their asynchronous and synchronous online teaching, specifically when this online teaching occurs during emergency education. The research was conducted in the academic year 2019/2020. We interviewed two elementary teachers, where one of them taught asynchronous lessons more than synchronous, while the second taught synchronous lessons more than asynchronous. We analyzed the data using two frameworks: one for interaction type and one for engagement type. The research results indicated that different interaction types influenced teachers’ decisions to use technological tools. In addition, what concerned the teachers’ use of tools at the beginning was the cognitive engagement, but they advanced towards focusing on behavioral and the affective engagement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1183
Pages: 1183-1195
cloud_download 330
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330
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727
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2

Scopus
9

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The onset of the Coronavirus disease COVID-19 crisis has forced pedagogical institutes to adopt online teaching/learning as an urgent strategy to cope with the pandemic. Utilizing the theories of social capital, knowledge sharing, and mobile learning constructs, this research aims to investigate the association among these constructs in one of the higher education institutes in the context of developing countries. Additionally, to improve our understanding of the mediation effect of mobile learning on this relationship, the author used the structural equation modeling technique to analyze the data from questionnaires administered to undergraduate students attending classes during the pandemic. Results revealed that the relationship between social capital factors and knowledge sharing is significantly positive. Results also showed that there is a partial mediation to back up the correlation of social capital factors and knowledge sharing.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1197
Pages: 1197-1207
cloud_download 288
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288
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544
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2

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0

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The 2019 novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has increased the mental health challenges and decreased the quality of life among students and the general adult population. However, adult learners and non-traditional students who are currently at their quarter and midlife during the pandemic, remain underrepresented in well-being research. Moreover, the unique sociocultural and historical contexts specific to generational cohorts may have an impact on the way they experience and cope with the challenges brought about by the pandemic. This study sought to determine the relationships among generational identity, mental well-being and life satisfaction among Millennial and Generation X Filipino adult learners. A total of 543 adult learners participated in this online cross-sectional study. Findings suggest that young millennials reported lower levels of mental well-being and life satisfaction compared to old millennials and Gen Xers. Moreover, mental well-being was found to be a predictor of life satisfaction among Filipino adult learners, regardless of their generational identity. Schools must implement initiatives to monitor and address mental health issues among adult learners, contextualized to quarter and midlife contexts.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1209
Pages: 1209-1218
cloud_download 427
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427
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641
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3

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Surveillance technology is more and more used in educational environments, which results in mass privacy violations of kids and, thus, the processing of huge amount of children’s data in the name of safety. Methodology used is doctrinal, since the focus of this research was given in the implementation of the legal doctrine of data protection law in the educational environments. More than that, the cases of Greece and France regarding the use of surveillance technologies in schools are carefully studied in this article. Privacy risks that both children and educators are exposed to are underlined. In these terms, this research paper focuses on the proper implementation of the European data protection framework and the role of Data Protection Authorities as control mechanisms, so that human rights risks from the perspective of privacy and data protection to be revealed, and the purposes of the use of such technologies to be evaluated. This study is limited in the legal examination of the European General Data Protection Regulation, and its implementation in the legal orders of Greece and France, and practice pertaining to the case studies of Greece and France respectively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1219
Pages: 1219-1229
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490
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584
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2

Scopus
1

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