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Volume 12 Issue 1 (January 2023)

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The pandemic era has caused changes in the learning system. The situation demanded online learning and triggered students to have learning difficulties. The research aims to examine the impact of social media, social environment, and student learning potential on student learning difficulties. This study utilizes a quantitative approach. The respondents were university students experiencing online learning in West Java, Indonesia. A questionnaire validated by four experts was distributed to 539 of them. Accommodating structural equation modeling (SEM) by evaluating the measurement and structural models was used in data analysis. This study revealed that the instrument had good construct validity and reliability. A good instrument will produce a good measurement process so that the instrument can get the data needed. Hypothesis testing shows that high media activity can inhibit students from learning. However, social media activity directly influences learning difficulties. Meanwhile, the variables of learning potential and social environment positively influence student learning difficulties directly or indirectly. There are a few things to note on learning potential, social environment, and social media to delve into their influences on students' learning difficulties.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.1
Pages: 1-14
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Mathematics teachers’ instructional strategies lack in-depth knowledge of algebraic systems and hold misconceptions about solving two algebraic equations simultaneously. This study aimed to gain an in-depth analysis of teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about the promotion of conceptual learning and effective teaching of algebraic equations. The main question was, ‘How do junior secondary school mathematics teachers manifest their pedagogical practices when teaching algebraic equations? This article reports on a qualitative, underpinned by the knowledge quartet model study, that sought to explore how junior secondary school teachers’ pedagogical practices manifested in the teaching of algebraic equations. Data were collected from observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis of two mathematics teachers purposely selected from two schools. The collected data were analysed using a statistical analysis software called Atlas-ti. (Version 8) and triangulated through thematic analysis. The study revealed that teachers’ choices of representations, examples, and tasks used did not expose learners to hands-on activities that promote understanding and making connections from the underlying algebraic equation concepts. The study proposed Penta-Knowledge Collaborative Planning and Reflective Teaching and Learning Models to enable teachers to collaborate with their peers from the planning stage to lesson delivery reflecting on good practices and strategies for teaching algebraic equations.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.15
Pages: 15-28
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Learning literature is considered challenging for university students, especially in Indonesia, as they must perform assigned tasks and communicate with one another, in addition to receiving and transmitting comprehensible literature content knowledge from and to their lecturers. In many cases, students do not get sufficient feedback on what they are doing. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of feedback strategies by lecturers in English literature lectures in a higher learning institution in Indonesia. Using a qualitative approach, this study involved three lecturers of the English literature department. Meanwhile, data were collected through 300 minutes of video recordings of drama, literary criticism, and prose lectures. The results revealed that the lecturers generated both negative and positive feedback strategies during the lectures. In terms of negative feedback strategies, they criticized students’ responses. By contrast, in terms of positive feedback strategies, they accepted, appreciated, and praised as well as repeated and answered students’ responses. The results also indicated that the feedback strategies became effective tools to improve students’ language competence, literary knowledge, and participation. This study suggested that lecturers use more positive feedback followed by additional comments during lectures as these could foster students’ engagement and keep learning longer.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.29
Pages: 29-40
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The skill to solve mathematical problems facilitates students to develop their basic skills to solve problems in daily life. This study analyzes students' problem-solving process with a reflective cognitive style in constructing probability problems using action, process, object, and schema theory (APOS). The explanatory method was used in this qualitative study. The participants were mathematics students at the Department of Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Semarang. The researchers collected the data with the cognitive style test using the Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT), used a valid problem-solving skill test, and the interview questions. The data analysis techniques used were processing and preparing the data for analysis, extensive reading of the data, coding all data, applying the coding process, describing the data, and interpreting the data. The results showed that (1) the problem-solving process of students with symbolic representation was characterized by the use of mathematical symbols to support the problem-solving process in the problem representation phase; (2) the problem-solving process of students with symbolic-visual representation was characterized by the use of symbols, notations, numbers, and visual representation in the form of diagrams in the problem representation phase.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.41
Pages: 41-58
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Analysis of the Effect of Social Skills and Disposition of Digital Literacy on Mathematical Literacy Ability

digital literacy disposition mathematical literacy social skills

Busnawir Busnawir , Kodirun Kodirun , Nana Sumarna , Zulham Alfari


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This study aims to analyze the characteristics of social skills, digital literacy disposition, and mathematical literacy abilities of 49 students; to analyze the theoretical model of the direct and indirect influence of digital literacy skills and social skills on mathematical literacy skills. The number of samples is 49 of the 12th-grade students at state high school #1 Southern Konawe. The research instruments consisted of a mathematical literacy ability test, a social skills questionnaire, and a digital literacy disposition questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and structural equational models (SEM) with a Smart PLS 3.0 application. The results showed that students' mathematical literacy skills tended to be better on content and context indicators but they are weak on competency and process indicators. Students' social skills tend to be better on indicators of peer-relationship skills and self-management skills, but are also weak on indicators of academic skills and compliance skills. Mastery of the digital literacy disposition tends to be better on the internet searching, content evaluation, and information sharing indicators but is still weak on knowledge assembly. Furthermore, it was found that (a) social skills have a direct effect on digital literacy disposition but do not directly affect mathematical literacy skills; (b) the digital literacy disposition has a direct effect on mathematical literacy skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.59
Pages: 59-69
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Learning activities are conducted to help students achieve optimal academic achievement. This research aims to optimize student academic achievement through a learning process that integrates comprehensive formative assessments, including formative tests, self-assessment, peer assessment, and the initiator of creating summaries or concept maps that are given to students in a structured manner at the end of every lesson. The research method used was a quasi-experimental method with a 2x2 factorial design. Students enrolled in the biology education program of the basic physics course for the 1st semester of the 2019 academic year participated in this study. The participants were 66 undergraduate students divided into two classes. Thirty-four students in the experimental group were in class A, while 32 students in the control group were in class B. Data were collected using a learning outcome test instrument to measure academic achievement, which was tested at the end of the semester. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. This study concluded that a learning process that includes comprehensive formative assessment significantly affects students' academic achievement. These findings support the theory that formative assessment provides feedback, correction, and improvement in student learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.71
Pages: 71-85
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A Systematic Review of Research on Problems and Challenges Faced by Principals During the COVID-19 Pandemic

covid-19 pandemic principals systematic review

Fatima K. Urakova , Alexandra V. Sudakova , Lyubov V. Kochneva , Elena E. Grishnova , Elena V. Asafova , Inna A. Garnaya-Ivanova


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COVID-19 affected all education stakeholders and led to school closures at the beginning of the spread of the pandemic. During the pandemic, principals had to manage their schools and faced many problems during the closure. Although there are numerous studies on school principals' challenges and difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic, no systematic review study analyzes research about the principals' challenges and problems in the current literature. The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic review of the challenges and problems of principals during the COVID-19 pandemic from 2020 to 2022. The researcher analyzed 395 articles indexed in the ERIC and SCOPUS databases between 2020-2022. The results were analyzed using content analysis. The research results showed that 26 articles were suitable according to the analysis criteria. The results revealed that, in general, researchers focused on understanding principals' experiences regarding their challenges and problems during the pandemic. The results also showed that most articles were published in 2021, and most studies were conducted in The United States of America and Turkey. The results also show that qualitative studies are higher than quantitative. In addition, we found that the biggest challenges are inadequate equipment and lack of access to the internet and online resources during the pandemic. At the same time, the most common problems were identified as the adaptation of online teaching and inadequate infrastructure. The results from this research contribute to the body of the existing literature through a systematic review of the challenges and problems of principals during a pandemic and identifying the research gaps revealed from the analyzed studies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.87
Pages: 87-98
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Several supporting factors are alleged to influence the performance of teachers. This study aimed to describe the relationship between each research variable and teachers’ performance, either directly or indirectly. This research was conducted through surveys and quantitative approaches that included correlational research types. The research subjects were Hindu religion teachers in 119 state junior high schools, consisting of 517 teachers. The sample of 256 people was determined using the Krejcie and Morgan formula and the Warwick and Lininger formula. The samples from each sub-population were determined with the proportional random sampling technique, and the personal sampling of sample members was determined with the use of lottery techniques. The data were collected using a five-point Likert scale model questionnaire with high validity and reliability. The data analysis technique used in this study was structural equation modelling. The conceptual model met the standards of comprehensive goodness-of-fit requirements. The results of the study show that the average levels of Hindu principals’ leadership, the emotional intelligence of teachers, supervision of school superintendents, school culture, teachers’ work motivation, and the performance of Hindu religion teachers are in the high category. In addition, the hypothesis testing results show there is a significant direct and indirect relationship between the variables in the state junior high school.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.99
Pages: 99-117
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Development research demands a improvement in the implementation of learning by developing products based on learning needs. The products of this development are teacher book and student book based on the realistic mathematic education (RME) approach for package A in statistics material. Validity testing in this study includes instrument validation, self-evaluation, expert validation, one-to-one evaluation. Aiken's V and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) are used to determine the validity and reliability of the product. The result of research shows that the instruments and prototype are valid and feasible. Then, the ICC obtained moderate stability, it also categorize reliable. In terms of context and hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) developed, the products should be revised to achieve meaningful learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.119
Pages: 119-131
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Hate Speech and the Gender Perspective: A Problem from the Teaching of Social Sciences in School

gender perspective hate speech social networks social sciences teacher education

Jesús Marolla-Gajardo , Felipe Zurita-Garrido , Sixtina Pinochet-Pinochet , Guillermo Castro-Palacios


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This study explores a socially relevant problem related to teachers' conceptions of hate speech from a gender perspective present in the discourse of teaching history and social science educational practices. The methodology was used within the paradigm with a case study design, as a generalization was not intended. The sample consisted of 80 professors of history and social sciences. A quantitative questionnaire was used to determine the conceptions of the participants. The main findings include the constraints placed by programs and curricula on the presence of hate speech, student interventions in classes, and strategies implemented by participating teachers to position counter-narratives to hate in their practice. The conclusions include the importance teachers place on analyzing the prevalence of hate speech in their practice, both by students and the media, and its impact on teaching. In addition, the results offer some educational insights and perspectives for positioning hate speech as a transformative social justice perspective.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.133
Pages: 133-144
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Metacognitive, critical thinking and opinion expression are in high demand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the blended project- based literacy that integrates school literacy movement strengthening character education (literasi berbasis proyek terintegrasi GLS dan PPK: Li-Pro-GP) learning model on students' metacognitive skills, critical thinking, and opinion expression. A post-test experimental design was used to answer the research question. The study was conducted from August to October 2021 at Government Junior High School 23 Malang. Seventh-grade students were selected as research participants. The participants included 30 students from class VII-2. The research instrument was five essay questions to measure critical thinking skills. Material and assessment experts validated the essay questions developed by the researcher. The items that were declared valid were tested for validity. The result showed five valid items with high reliability of .670. Metacognitive skills were measured using the Metacognition Awareness Instrument (MAI), which consists of 40 items. The questions declared valid were tested for validity with a very high reliability of .953 for 37 items, and only three items were invalid. The ability to express an opinion was measured with an observation questionnaire validated by experts with a valid instrument score. Data analysis was performed by path analysis using the SmartPLS software. The results showed that the Li-Pro-GP blended learning model significantly strengthened students' metacognitive skills, critical thinking, and opinion formation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.145
Pages: 145-158
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The Concept of Number Sequence in Graphical Representations for Secondary School Students

compulsory secondary education students graphical representation number sequences progression in learning

José Mariano Bajo-Benito , José María Gavilán-Izquierdo , Gloria Sánchez-Matamoros García


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The aim of this work is to characterise the understanding that students in compulsory secondary education (14-16 years old) have of number sequences in graphical representations. The learning of numerical sequences is one of the first mathematical concepts to be developed in an infinite context. This study adopts the focus of semiotic representations as its theoretical framework. The participants consisted of 105 students and a qualitative methodology was used. The data collection instruments were a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The results allowed for three student profiles regarding number sequences in graphical representations to be identified. These profiles may facilitate a possible progression in the learning of number sequences for students in compulsory secondary education to be considered. Therefore, the results presented in this study can provide information about the learning hypotheses of mathematical tasks related to numerical sequences and can help in the design of such tasks.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.159
Pages: 159-172
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Professional Certifications of a University Master’s Degree and Employability: Impact on Students’ Perception

educational innovation postgraduate degree professional certification

David Peón , Xosé-Manuel Martínez-Filgueira , José-Luís Rodríguez-Gómez


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Professional certifications represent for many university degrees, especially postgraduate degrees, a recognition of their academic quality and the future employability of the graduates. This article contributes to the analysis of the impact of external accreditations on students’ perception of employability and satisfaction. We offer a case of study, a Master of Science (MSc) in Banking and Finance that became the first academic degree in Spain to obtain the two professional accreditations required for employees in financial institutions since 2019. A survey to a sample of students who graduated two academic years before and two years after the MSc was recognised is used to measure students' motivations for enrolment and satisfaction. The results provide significant evidence that professional accreditation became a key motivation for students to enrol the master, is associated with a more diverse geographical origin of students, and students highlight the higher quality and better coordination of the teaching staff.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.173
Pages: 173-188
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Research is considered a vital component for propelling progress and development. This study aims to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) in the teaching of research methodology and statistics courses on improving research writing skills and enhancing course achievement. It also projects an action plan model for the effective implementation of PBL in the instructional aspect. The study utilised a positivist research paradigm based on action research design using the technique of content analysis. Employing a universal rubric, 45 proposals of graduate programme students enrolled in the College of Education at Minia University in North Upper Egypt were subjected to content analysis to rate students’ skills in writing research proposals before and after the delivery of the course. The students volunteered to participate in the study after they were given a synopsis of the aims and procedures. Students’ achievement was assessed through a test consisting of 90 items, developed primarily for this purpose at the end of the second semester in the academic year 2018–2019. The post-content analysis revealed a significant improvement in scientific research skills, with a considerable difference between the pre- and post-achievement scores. It is imperative to consider the feasibility of using the PBL approach in teaching research methodology and statistics courses for graduate students. The study recommended the adoption of PBL in undergraduate programmes as well as in high school education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.189
Pages: 189-200
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4

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The most crucial factor influencing inclusive education is the preparation of educators for their professional activities. The aim of this study was to create and present a model for developing the professional competences of pre-service social educators in the context of inclusive education. The model reflected its main components: aim, objectives, methodological approaches, principles, technologies, study conditions, forms of training and stages of implementation (preliminary, main and final). The model introduced for professional activity in the conditions of inclusive education in the university's study process has the following characteristics: expediency, integrity, internal unity and consistency. The distinctiveness of the presented model lies in the possible application of taught subjects, such as the Inclusion in the Educational Environment module developed by the authors, educational internships and research work of students (RWS). Furthermore, the model is functional, based on a systemic and student-centred approaches and the principle of continuity of learning, i.e., lifelong learning (LLL).

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.201
Pages: 201-211
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Developing Mobile Learning Application Containing Basic Pedagogy Material as the Supplement in Improving College Students’ Learning Outcome in Teacher Training Institutes of Indonesia

learning outcomes material pedagogy mobile learning

Farid Ahmadi , Wahyu Hardyanto , Suwito Eko Pramono , I Made Sugiarta , Hermawan Syahputra , Andi Kristanto , Mario Tulenan Parinsi , Iwan Sugihartono


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The vast technological development affects every layer of people’s daily life, including Education. However, Indonesia’s tertiary education status quo has not exhibited any rapid development in information technology-based learning media. This study aimed to develop and identify the effectiveness of Basic Pedagogy Material online learning material in improving students’ outcomes in pedagogy. It applied R & D design with a waterfall development model on second-semester students in Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, during the educational year of 2020/2021. The data collected through interviews, observation, questionnaire, scale, and test were analyzed using independent t-test and n-gain. The findings indicated a significant difference between the average score before and after students used the Basic Pedagogy Materials mobile learning application during the learning process. Therefore, the mobile learning application developed effectively improves students' learning outcomes in pedagogy subjects effectively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.213
Pages: 213-227
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Bandura's Observational Learning Model and General Motoric Ability About Learning Outcomes in Athletic Skills

athletic skills learning outcomes general motoric ability learning model

I Gusti Lanang Agung Parwata , I Wayan Widiana , Made Agus Wijaya , I Wayan Muliarta


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This study aims to analyze the impact of Bandura’s observational learning model based on performance assessment learning models and general motor skills on athletic skills learning outcomes. This study used an experimental design treatment by level 2x2. A simple random sampling technique was used with a total of 88 people. The data collection method used consisted of tests and documentation. A two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the students’ athletic skills learning outcomes that followed the Bandura observational learning model based on performance assessment were higher than students’ conventional learning model. There was an interaction effect between the learning model and general motor skills on the student's athletic skills learning outcomes. The students’ athletic skills learning outcomes who follow the Bandura observational learning model based on performance assessment were higher than the conventional learning model. The students with low general motor skills and the students’ athletic skills learning outcomes that followed the Bandura observational learning model based on performance assessment were lower than the conventional learning model. Based on the research findings, it is recommended to improve the athletic skills learning outcomes with Bandura's observational learning model based on performance assessments appropriately and correctly.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.229
Pages: 229-238
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Scientific literacy is a critical competency for people to take an essential role in science, technology, and social advancement. It is important to note that this competence is still a problem for most students worldwide. Therefore, this study analysed students' scientific literacy differences between a project-based learning flipped classroom (PjBL-FC) and a project-based learning (PjBL) class assisted by learning resources in wetlands environments. This quasi-experimental study used a non-equivalent control group design involving Class X Senior High School as the sample. The data were inferentially analysed by t-test. The results showed that the scientific literacy of students in the class that applied the PjBL-FC was better than those who applied only PjBL. Furthermore, all the indicators reach the high to very high category except the ability to propose a hypothesis, which is in the medium category. It was concluded that flipped classroom makes the PjBL take place more efficiently and effectively. Further studies can be carried out to determine how students use the learning materials, how teachers design the PjBL strategy in an online platform, their effect on scientific literacy, and how to combine PjBL with other approaches.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.239
Pages: 239-251
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The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of a measurement and to evaluate its internal reliability. Overall, 525 math-majoring elementary school teachers volunteered to participate in this study by answering online survey questions via Google Form. These samples were randomly partitioned into 262 participants for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and 263 observations for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The EFA tended to largely prefer a four-factor solution, which was proven to explain over 68% of the variation in the data. Awareness, effectiveness, engagement, and opportunity were the provisional labels for these hidden variables. The CFA results verified and validated the four-factor model, with all test measures exceeding the specified thresholds, suggesting an acceptable and excellent fit. The results of this study, on the one hand, provide four key areas for realistic math teachers, educators, and policymakers to discuss as opposed to examining individual indicators, and on the other hand, they serve as a foundation for interested researchers to conduct additional analyses, such as multivariate linear regression or complement for cluster analysis.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.253
Pages: 253-263
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The Use of Collaborative Strategies to Improve Students' Writing Ability and Self-Efficacy: A Mixed Method Study

collaborative strategy writing ability writing self-efficacy

Helaluddin , Nurhayati , Nyayu Lulu Nadya , Gunawan Ismail , Muhammad Guntur , Arinah Fransori


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This study explored the effects of collaborative writing strategies on students' writing skills and self-efficacy. The study used a mixed methods design combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. Several instruments were used in data collection, including questionnaires, writing tests, writing assessment rubrics, and semi-structured interviews. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group, which comprised 62 students. Data from the questionnaire and writing tests were analyzed using one-way MANOVA and MANCOVA tests, while interview data were explored using thematic analysis techniques. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. The results showed that collaborative writing strategies could improve students' writing skills and self-efficacy. Moreover, the qualitative results showed that most students responded positively to using these strategies to improve their writing skills and self-efficacy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.265
Pages: 265-280
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2

The Use of Technology-Based Model of Critical Thinking Development to Reshape Students’ Self-Study Process

critical thinking higher education self-study student performance technologies

Olena Kravchenko , Viktoriia Dokuchaieva , Tatyana Valentieva , Liudmyla Sbitnieva , Natalia Chornobryva


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The aim of this study was to investigate how the use of the technologized model of critical thinking development affected the self-study process of students of higher educational institutions (HEIs). The research methodology was based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative empirical methods, as well as a descriptive approach to data analysis. The study involved a quasi-experimental model supposed to influence the variables under study. The technology-based educational model of autonomous learning with a focus on the critical thinking development in students of HEIs consisted of the following processes, such as: communication, analysis, synthesis, problem-solving, evaluation, and reflection. The Watson Glaser Test was adapted to monitor the level of students’ critical thinking. The average score on the final control of students’ knowledge was used to monitor the experimental group students’ performance. By monitoring the development of students’ critical thinking and the dynamics of their performance in the course of training, where 90% of the time students studied independently, it was established that the use of a technological educational model had a positive effect on the critical thinking of students of HEIs, and as a result, the effectiveness of their self-study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.281
Pages: 281-296
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Crises like COVID-19 affect organizations as well as employees' well-being. Leaders, in this sense, have a critical role to play in reducing the challenges and promoting a healthy workplace. With employees feeling overwhelmed and anxious to cope, leaders should provide the appropriate support and guidance. This quantitative study examined the relationship between different leadership styles, which are participative, directive, supportive, and Laissez-Faire, and teachers' well-being in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study adds insights into the UAE's public school context, where 101 teachers were surveyed following a snowball sampling technique. Findings revealed that Laissez-Faire and directive styles were the most dominant among the four leadership styles examined. In terms of the relationships between leadership styles and well-being, correlation and regression analyses were done through SPSS, and findings from the Generalized Linear Model analysis revealed that although the four styles correlated positively with well-being, the participative leadership style had the most decisive influence. The results showed that none of the demographics had any significant influence on well-being, and no differences in well-being in terms of demographics were reported.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.297
Pages: 297-315
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Teachers play an important role in helping students improve their learning and achieve the intended curriculum outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to look at teachers’ knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of any educational innovation. The present study aims to examine knowledge, understanding and perceptions of Rwandan science teachers with respect to the competence-based curriculum (CBC) introduced in 2015. The 2015 curriculum framework included features like the rationale for its adoption, the concept of competence, different competences to be developed by learners upon CBC implementation, principles guiding CBC implementation, and cross-cutting issues to be addressed by CBC implementation. This research is a multiple case study that adopted a qualitative approach with interpretivism paradigm. Twelve science teachers from three secondary schools, selected based on their differing teaching experience, participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The data were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed some satisfactory knowledge, understanding and perceptions of science teachers. Further, knowledge and understanding gaps as well as negative perceptions of CBC were identified. Towards the effective and efficient implementation of the CBC, this research suggests appropriate training and establishment of the school community of practices for improving teachers’ experience of the CBC.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.317
Pages: 317-327
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This study aims to identify students' styles of career choices. The second aim is to investigate what factors influence career choice style. The third aim is to determine whether all students of education programs want to become teachers one day. This research model is a relational model that uses multinomial logistic regression. The research population was Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) students of education programs from five faculties in 2018. The number of people in the population was 4,531, and the participants were 220 students. The data analysis consisted of the multinomial logistic regression method. The results showed that the model met the requirements for use. Factors affecting career decisions are gathering information, locus of control, decision-making speed, and aspiration of an ideal career. Career choice has five styles: rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant. Accordingly, the spontaneous style is most commonly used by students. The other result shows that the factor that most influences students in choosing a style is pursuing an ideal career.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.329
Pages: 329-340
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Several reforms have been introduced to help enhance Vietnamese people’s English competencies. However, research on what reforms Vietnamese teachers support or resist is limited. Also, the impact of teachers’ demographic information on their responses to reforms is underrepresented. This mixed-methods study used a questionnaire, responded by 102 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers, and six semi-structured interviews to address the gap. The results revealed that the teachers supported the reforms in their teaching context. They preferred using their self-developed or self-adapted materials to using required materials. On the other hand, using the VSTEP framework for designing tests was not supported. Teachers’ demographic information, especially educational qualification, significantly differed one’s responses to reforms from those of another. Some practical implications were discussed at the end of this paper. Also, some recommendations were presented to be considered for further studies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.341
Pages: 341-357
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This study examined students’ calibration of performance in a sport skill in relation to their performance in an executive functions test. A total of 265 students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades participated in the study. The students took an executive functions test, and then they were tested on a basketball shooting test, after having provided a personal estimation regarding their performance. Based on students’ actual and estimated performance, the bias index was calculated to classify students into three categories; accurates, underestimators and overestimators, while the accuracy index (absolute values of the bias index) was also calculated. The results showed a positive but small magnitude relation between students’ scores in the executive functions test and their performance calibration, while accurate scored higher on the executive function test compared to over estimators and under estimators. These results are similar to those of previous studies with elementary school children that employed cognitive tasks and were discussed with reference to theoretical and empirical implications.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.359
Pages: 359-369
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The Development of a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test Based on Modern Test Theory in Physics Education

developing test four-tiers diagnostic test modern test theory

Edi Istiyono , Wipsar Sunu Brams Dwandaru , Kharisma Fenditasari , Made Rai Suci Shanti Nurani Ayub , Duden Saepuzaman


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Diagnostic tests are generally two or three-tier and based on classical test theory. In this research, the Four-Tier Diagnostic Test (FTDT) was developed based on modern test theory to determine understanding of physics levels: scientific conception (SC), lack of knowledge (LK), misconception (MSC), false negatives (FN), and false positives (FP). The goals of the FTDT are to (a) find FTDT constructs, (b) test the quality of the FTDT, and (c) describe students' conceptual understanding of physics. The development process was conducted in the planning, testing, and measurement phases. The FTDT consists of four-layer multiple-choice with 100 items tested on 700 high school students in Yogyakarta. According to the partial credit models (PCM), the student's responses are in the form of eight categories of polytomous data. The results of the study show that (a) FTDT is built on the aspects of translation, interpretation, extrapolation, and explanation, with each aspect consisting of 25 items with five anchor items; (b) FTDT is valid with an Aiken's V value in the range of 0.85-0.94, and the items fit PCM with Infit Mean Square (INFIT MNSQ) of 0.77-1.30, item difficulty index of 0.12-0.38, and the reliability coefficient of Cronbach's alpha FTDT is 0.9; (c) the percentage of conceptual understanding of physics from large to small is LK type 2 (LK2), FP, LK type 1 (LK1), FN, LK type 3 (LK3), SC, LK type 4 (LK4), and MSC. The percentage sequence of MSC based on the successive material is momentum, Newton's law, particle dynamics, harmonic motion, work, and energy. In addition, failure to understand the concept sequentially is due to Newton's law, particle dynamics, work and energy, momentum, and harmonic motion.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.371
Pages: 371-385
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The Possibility of Applying the Social-Emotional Learning Model in Teaching of Primary Teachers: A Vietnamese Case Study

primary teachers sel sel-based teaching sel’s perception social-emotional learning

Van-Son Huynh , Thien-Vu Giang , Vinh-Khuong Nguyen , Chung-Hai Nguyen , Hong-Quan Bui


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Although the social-emotional learning model (SEL) has been researched in Vietnam for many years, studies on teachers' SEL-based teaching competence have not been the focus. This study explored the possibility of applying the SEL model to the teaching of Vietnamese primary school teachers. Our case study of 50 teachers who participated in previous SEL projects highlights three factors that prevented successful SEL application in Vietnamese schools, including (a) confusion about the SEL-based teaching perspective, (b) traditional teaching methods, (c) limited training in social-emotional skills, and mental health policies for primary school teachers. The findings have broadened and deepened our understanding of the possibility of successful application of the SEL model in the classroom, which would depend on SEL-based professional supervision, consistency in SEL-based teaching methods and SEL practice guides/manuals, and promotion or adaptation of policies for SEL-based practice and application in schools.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.387
Pages: 387-395
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Impact of Mobile Technology on Collaborative Learning in Engineering Studies

collaborative learning engineering study malaysia higher education mobile technology smartpls

Xiaofei Gong , Sathiamoorthy Kannan , Kamalanathan Ramakrishnan


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Collaborative learning has been identified as an essential aspect in the process of learning. As accelerated advancement continues to characterize the developments of technology, innovative mobile technology appears to be transforming the way collaborative learning is taking shape. This study focused on identifying whether mobile technology has a significant impact on collaborative learning in engineering studies in a private University in Malaysia. Using a quantitative approach, an online survey was administered for the data collection. Some 221 participants were selected randomly among undergraduate engineering students in the University. Data were analyzed using SmartPLS. The research findings revealed that mobile technology has a significant impact on collaborative learning. The findings also indicated that two of the mobile technology dimensions, namely mobility and immediacy have significant impact on collaborative learning. Consequently, this research suggests engineering educators can integrate mobile technology into their future instruction for more collaborative learning and create a smart workforce consisting of fast and adaptive engineers as well as other learners in Malaysia.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.397
Pages: 397-406
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2

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In recent years, there is a growing number of Vietnamese students applying to study abroad at a younger age. Instead of waiting until adulthood, many Vietnamese parents decide to send their offspring to study abroad early from high school. This study was conducted to analyze the factors affecting the intention of Vietnamese parents to send their children to study abroad. The dataset includes 350 responses, in which parents of middle and high school students having the intention and willingness to send their children to study abroad are respondents. The research results show that perceived value, perceived risk, and three variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model affect the intention to send their children to study abroad with the ability of explanation 53.4%. In detail, Attitude (influenced by Success, Modern self, and Traditional self) has the most significant influence (30.9%) on the dependent variable. On that basis, some suggestions are proposed for international educational organizations and study-abroad counseling centers to help them give the right orientation to Vietnamese parents about studying-abroad. Besides, proposing some recommendations for domestic educational institutions, international educational institutions, and educational management agencies in Vietnam, in order to improve the quality of education and training, creating an ideal learning environment that meets international standards for students, and simultaneously attracting international students to Vietnam.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.407
Pages: 407-419
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Generalization of Patterns Drawing of High-Performance Students Based on Action, Process, Object, and Schema Theory

apos generalization high-performance pattern drawing

Andi Mulawakkan Firdaus , Wasilatul Murtafiah , Marheny Lukitasari , Nurcholif Diah Sri Lestari , Tias Ernawati , Sri Adi Widodo


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This study is qualitative with descriptive and aims to determine the process of generalizing the pattern image of high performance students based on the action, process, object, and schema (APOS) theory. The participants in this study were high performance eighth-grade Indonesian junior high school. Assignments and examinations to gauge mathematical aptitude and interviews were used to collect data for the study. The stages of qualitative analysis include data reduction, data presentation, and generating conclusions. This study showed that when given a sequence using a pattern drawing, the subjects used a number sequence pattern to calculate the value of the next term. Students in the action stage interiorize and coordinate by collecting prints from each sequence of numbers in the process stage. After that, they do a reversal so that at the object stage, students do encapsulation, then decapsulate by evaluating the patterns observed and validating the number series patterns they find. Students explain the generalization quality of number sequence patterns at the schema stage by connecting activities, processes, and objects from one concept to actions, processes, and things from other ideas. In addition, students carry out thematization at the schematic stage by connecting existing pattern drawing concepts with general sequences. From these results, it is recommended to improve the problem-solving skill in mathematical pattern problems based on problem-solving by high performance students', such as worksheets for students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.421
Pages: 421-433
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This study aims to investigate lecturers' needs for academic writing learning materials and determine their prototypes. This study is qualitative research in the form of an exploratory case study. The research instruments were semi-open-ended questionnaires and unstructured and open-ended interview guides. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results show that the developed learning material for academic writing skills contains seven needs for lecturers in the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Four of them have not been found by previous researchers. The results from this study provide new knowledge and contribution to the literature about the need to prototype the learning materials. The lecturers or other researchers can use these seven needs in prototyping learning materials for academic writing skills, such as the needs of learning materials, their forms, presentation system, language use, evaluation form, main menu design, and the way of creating learning materials.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.435
Pages: 435-453
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Under the influence of neo-liberalism and marketization, education is increasingly becoming more content-focused than character one. Ignoring the fact that money, science, and technology may take a person to the moon, these are ethical and moral values that take him/her to the even loftier heights of humanity. Recent COVID-19-driven focus on information and communication technology (ICT) and digital learning have further added to these woes by focusing more on human-machine interaction than human-human ones. Traditional models for inculcating these values through education which heavily rely on the physical presence of teachers do not seem to work in these circumstances. This demands a model for inculcating these values in learning management systems/ e-learning platforms. This study contributes in this regard by first identifying key players and factors, and then proposing a model for it. Using the Delphi model, it gathers opinions from 59 experts in two rounds. Academic institutions, society and online community members, teachers, and e-contents were identified as key factors and players. It suggests a holistic approach-based model through which all of them play their role and collaborate through an e-learning platform. That platform can be used to disseminate information, create awareness, monitor, and report the e-learners. It uses pull and push strategies to help the e-learners to develop those values.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.455
Pages: 455-465
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The primary objective of this study is to require the experts’ unanimous agreement on the e-learning antecedents and usage behavior towards e-learning performance. This study used the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to gather answers and feedback using a 7-point Likert scale. The survey (items) was reviewed and approved by eight panel members or experts. It was analyzed using Fuzzy Delphi Logic (FUDELO 1.0) software. The data were evaluated using triangular fuzzy numbering and the position (ranking) of each variable was established through defuzzification. The findings revealed that all of the items received high levels of expert agreement, significantly greater α-cut defuzzification values >.5, the overall value of the threshold (d) is less than .2 and had to comply with the overall percentage of percent consensus, which must be greater than 75%. All 45 recommended items were retained adequately and acceptable for a large-scale survey in this study. Finally, each item was prioritized (ranked) based on the defuzzification value, and then some additional items were added, as recommended by experts.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.467
Pages: 467-480
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Absenteeism, Self-Confidence and Academic Performance: Empirical Comparison of Turkey and Singapore

1012973/eu-jer121481

Özer Depren , Seda Bağdatlı-Kalkan , Serpil Kılıç-Depren


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In today's World, data-driven methods are behind the determination of potential action plans in every area of life. These data-driven methods help individuals or policymakers to figure out the strengths and weaknesses on the subject that are worked on and to make a comparison to the best practices. Thus, actions can be taken immediately on the specific factors that have a huge impact on the topic investigated. In the educational area, countries are using the same approach to measure, monitor, and improve the quality of education by attending international studies. In this study, for both Turkish and Singaporean students, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is performed to predict the students' mathematics achievement and to identify factors that have a high impact on achievement using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2019 with the data of 3,586 Turkish and 4,750 Singaporean students. The reason behind comparing the results of Turkey to Singapore is that Singapore is the best-performing country in terms of mathematics achievement in the TIMSS in 2019. The model results show that the top two crucial factors in both countries are the frequency of absenteeism from school, and students’ confidence in mathematics with the accuracy of 75%. In addition, relevant policy implications are given based on the importance level of significant factors.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.481
Pages: 481-491
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Numerous events occur in students' educational trajectories that are linked to school success. Some of these events are related to school-related factors. Moreover, these factors alter the quality of students' engagement, generating the risk of dropping out of school. The objective of this research has been to explore, compare and understand the different events that occur in the school trajectories of at-risk youths that are related to the existing dynamics in schools. In order to achieve this objective, a narrative research based on the life stories approach was developed. For the reconstruction of the stories, the technique of in-depth interviews and mixed data analysis was used, by means of different analysis techniques. The main conclusions reached after the research have been highly relevant for studies on educational trajectories of at-risk youth. The different factors associated with schools affect the trajectory and involvement of students. There are certain dynamics that have a greater presence in some stages or others, however, all of them can positively or negatively affect the quality of student engagement. Finally, it is shown that the key lies in the way in which the different dynamics of schools develop, i.e., how the dynamics associated with certain factors develop.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.493
Pages: 493-505
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The Effectiveness of Teaching Derivatives in Vietnamese High Schools Using APOS Theory and ACE Learning Cycle

academic achievement ace learning cycle apos theory derivative mathematics education

Nguyen Thi Nga , Tang Minh Dung , Le Thai Bao Thien Trung , Tien-Trung Nguyen , Duong Huu Tong , Tran Quoc Van , Bui Phuong Uyen


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The actions, processes, objects, and schemas (APOS) theory is a constructivist learning theory created by Dubinsky based on Piaget's epistemology and used to teach math worldwide. Especially the application of APOS theory to the curriculum of a mathematics class helps students better understand the concepts being taught, which in turn contributes to the formation and development of mathematical competencies. With the aid of the APOS theory and the activity, classroom discussion, and exercise (ACE) learning cycle, this study sought to ascertain the effect of teaching derivatives in Vietnamese high schools. In this quasi-experimental study at a high school in Vietnam, there were 78 grade 11 students (40 in the experimental and 38 in the control classes). As opposed to the control class, which received traditional instruction, the experimental class's students were taught using the ACE learning cycle based on the APOS theory. The data was collected based on the pre-test, the post-test results and a survey of students' opinions. Also, the data that was gathered, both qualitatively and quantitatively, was examined using IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 26) predictive analytics software. The results showed that students in the experimental class who participated in learning activities based on the APOS theory improved their academic performance and attitudes. Additionally, it promoted the students' abilities to find solutions to problems about derivatives.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.507
Pages: 507-523
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The evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of human life, with numerous activities carried out through networks, including education. Lecturers need to change their teaching strategies to make students able to accept the material provided. On the other hand, students must manage their lives without being limited by space and time to avoid stress and cyberloafing, especially in the academic field. Cyberloafing is the act of accessing the internet during study hours for personal interests. Therefore, this research aims to determine the effect of academic stress on cyberloafing and whether fatigue is a mediating variable between both factors. Data were collected from 284 students studying in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The results showed that the academic stress felt by students has a positive and significant effect on cyberloafing behavior. Although fatigue positively affects both factors, it does not mediate the relationship between them. The managerial implications in this research are expected to be used as material for evaluating online learning methods for students, as well as to make them aware of the negative impact of cyberloafing behavior during lectures.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.525
Pages: 525-535
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Research on Factors that Influence College Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

academic performance emotion engagement self-control self-efficacy

Moesarofah , Imanuel Hitipeuw , Fulgentius Danardana Murwani , Marthen Pali


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This study used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test a model that hypothesized the influence of self-efficacy, self-control, emotion, and engagement on student academic performance. The structural equation modeling model was developed to link all the study variables with a literature review to describe the interrelationship. Data collected were from 413 college students in their second year. The results show that self-efficacy, self-control, emotion, and engagement predict student academic performance. And through emotion and student engagement, both self-efficacy and self-control predict student academic performance indirectly. Practically the measures used in this study give more information about the learning environment in higher education settings than those usually come from traditional practices faculty received in the classroom, such as student rating forms and feedback. The main findings of this study have some implications for higher education, theory development, measurement, and future research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.537
Pages: 537-549
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Professional Learning Communities in Vietnamese Primary Schools in the Educational Reform Context: Forms and Challenges

principal leadership professional learning community teacher learning vietnamese schools

Hong-Van Thi Dinh , Quynh Anh Thi Nguyen , Ngoc Hai-Tran , Le-Hang Thi-Do , Hung Thanh Nguyen , Long Minh Dau , Bao-Phan Phung-Dinh


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Professional learning communities (PLCs) are important for improving student achievement and school development. According to PLC research, teachers' knowledge and practice in teaching are significantly improved by various PLC forms and favorable working environments. This qualitative research was conducted to find out what forms of PLCs were popular and what challenges were facing three primary schools in a province in Vietnam. The study utilizes a multiple-site case study design relating to PLCs in those schools with the data from interviews with the principals, group leaders and teachers, observations of PLC activities and related policy documents. The two forms of PLCs were identified in this research, including professional groups and groups of core teachers. Besides, four challenges facing PLCS implementation in those schools included the old habit of professional learning in PLCs, structural conditions of schedules and facilities, economic conditions of teachers and motivation for reforms. The study provides recommendations based on the findings for PLC research and practice within and beyond the Vietnamese context.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.551
Pages: 551-565
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‘Panic-gogy’ is a term that describes the educational situation during the pandemic due to the transformation phenomenon from face-to-face learning to distance learning. Various types of research are used to uncover the constraints of this phenomenon, but not many researchers use phenomenological studies with parents as participants. Therefore, we used a phenomenological study to describe parents’ views on the constraints, expectations, and approvals regarding the preparation of distance learning modules at the junior high school level (aged 13-15 years). Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using NVivo-12-assisted thematic analysis. The main findings are that most parents experience problems. Namely, children do not understand mathematics material, incomplete explanations of material from teachers, internet disturbances, and quota limitations, and children cannot learn mathematics optimally during the distance learning period. Most parents want face-to-face learning to be carried out immediately, teachers to provide detailed explanations, and use digital learning platforms. In addition, 85% of parents agree that mathematics teachers should develop distance learning modules. However, because the pandemic is still not over, this study recommends using blended learning to maintain the quality of mathematics learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.567
Pages: 567-581
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