logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
scientific experiment didactical types typology of experiments

Didactic Modes of Scientific Experiments in Moroccan High Schools: Photosynthesis as an Example

Sophia Bouzit , Anouar Alami , Sabah Selmaoui , Moncef Zaki , Boujemaa Agorram

This exploratory study aims to verify whether the current use of scientific experiments in the Moroccan high-school science curriculum meets students&.


This exploratory study aims to verify whether the current use of scientific experiments in the Moroccan high-school science curriculum meets students’ needs for experimental scientific learning. For that purpose, a sample chapter of the official science textbook was analysed in detail. The analysis was carried out using a didactic model of the French didactician Coquide, which categorizes teaching objectives into three modes: practical familiarisation, empirical investigation and conceptual construction. Analysis grids were built based on a selection of the three didactical modes’ attributes. These grids were used to identify the presence and the weight of these three didactical modes within the chosen sample chapter. Results reveal that experiments in the high-school scientific curriculum are not presented in a balanced way and rarely implemented according to a didactic logic. The study also shows that the experiments analysed are essentially focused on the conceptual construction mode while neglecting practical familiarisation and empirical investigation.

Keywords: Scientific experiment, didactical types, typology of experiments.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Astolfi, J. -P. (1978). What scientific education for which society? PUF. https://www.persee.fr/doc/rfp_0556-7807_1980_num_50_1_2199_t1_0076_0000_2

Astolfi, J. -P., Peterfalvi, B., & Verin, A,. (1991). Methodological skills in experimental sciences. INRP.

Astolfi, J. -P., Peterfalvi, B., & Verin, A,. (1998). How do children learn science? RETE.

Benfares, S., Alami, A., Zaki, M., Chikhaoui, A., & Elazami, M.  (2015). Integration of ICT in environmental education-case study on the greenhouse effect among secondary school students. International Journal of Research in Education Methodology, 7(2), 1077-1078. https://doi.org/10.24297/ijrem.v7i2.3841

Bernard, C. (1865). Introduction to the experimental Medecine’s study. Flammarion. http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/bernard_claude/intro_etude_medecine_exp/intro_medecine_exper.pdf

Cariou, G. -Y. (2010). Former l'esprit scientifique en privilegiant l'initiative des eleves dans une demarche s'appuyant sur l'epistemologie et l'histoire des sciences [Training the scientific spirit by favouring student initiative in an approach based on epistemology and the history of science] (Publication No 00521174) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva]. https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00521174

Chakour, R., Alami, A., Selmaoui, S., Eddif, A., & Boughanmi, Y. (2019). Earth sciences teaching difficulties in secondary school: A teacher’s point of view. Education sciences journal, 9(3), 243-254. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030243

Coquide, M. (1998). Resistance of reality in experimental practices. INRP. http://ife.ens-lyon.fr/publications/edition-electronique/aster/RA028-04.pdf

Coquide, M. (2000). Le rapport experimental au vivant [The experimental relations to the living]. (Publication No 00525838) [Research leadership credentials, Paris-Sud University]. https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00525838/document

Coquide, M. (2003).  Faced with the experimental scholastic. HAL. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/526123/filename/CoquidA_Maryline_Face_A_l_expA_rimental_scolaire_2003_.pdf

Develay, M. (1989). Sur la methode experimentale [About the experimental method]. INRP.  http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/9152/ASTER_1989_8_1.pdf?sequence=1

Official Program (2007). Teaching guidelines and teaching programs for life and earth sciences in qualifying secondary     education in Morocco. Government Publishing Service.

Dubarle, D. (1965). Galileo’s scientific method. Science history journal, 18(2), 161-192.

El Batri, B., Alami, A., Zaki, M., Nafidi, Y., & Chenfour, D. (2019). Promotion of the Environmental Knowledge and Behavior through the Moroccan Syllabus of Sciences in the Middle School. International Electronic Journal Of Elementary Education, 11(4), 371-381.

Finley, N.F., Stewart, J., & Yarroch, W. L. (1982) Teachers' perceptions of important and difficult science concepts. Science Education, 66(4), 531-538.

Galiana, D. (1999). Experimental practices in high school texbooks (1850-1996). INRP. http://ife.ens-lyon.fr/publications/edition-electronique/aster/RA028-02.pdf

Galiana, D. (2003). The experimental approach in Biology. EDUCAGRI.

Giordan, A. (1978). Pedagogy for the experimental sciences. PAIDOGUIDES, French journal of pedagogy. https://www.persee.fr/doc/rfp_0556-7807_1980_num_50_1_2199_t1_0062_0000_2

Giordan, A. (1992). Didactic for the experimental sciences. BELIN.

Iancu, C., & Chilom, C.-G. (2016). Discovering photosynthesis by experiments. Romania Report in Physics, 68(3), 1259-1269.

Johstone, A. H., & Mahmmoud, N.A. (1980) Isolating topics of high perceived difficulty in school biology. Journal of Biological Education, 14(2), 163-166.

Keles, E., & Kefeli, P. (2010). Determination of student misconceptions in “Photosynthesis and Respiration” unit and correcting them with the help of CAI material. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3111-3118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.474.

Kurt, H.,  Ekici, G., Akta, M., & Aksu, O. (2013). The concept of photosynthesis which is an indicator of life in plants: A cognitive structure study. American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 13(9), 1207-1231. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.09.11032

Maskour, L., Alami, A., Zaki, M., & Agorram, B. (2019). Plant classification knowledge and misconceptions among university students in morocco. Education sciences, 9(1), 48-59. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9010048

Metioui, A., Matoussi, F., & Trudel, L. (2016). The Teaching of Photosynthesis in Secondary School: A History of the Science Approach. Journal of Biological Education, 275-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2015.1085427

Nafidi, Y., Alami, A., Zaki, M., El Batri, B., Elazami Hassani, M., & Afkar, H. (2018). The integration of  ICTs in the teaching of life and eart sciences in morocco : State of the places and challenges to raise. Education sciences, 2(6), 14-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030243

Nas, H. (2010). Teaching photosynthesis in a compulsory school context: Students’ Reasoning, Understanding and Interactions. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 7(1), 104-185. https://doi.org/10.5617/nordina.262

O'Connell, D. (2008). An inquiry-based approach to teaching photosynthesis & cellular respiration. The American Biology Teacher, 70(6), 350-356.  https://doi.org/10.1662/0002-7685(2008)70[350:AIATTP]2.0.CO;2

Ross, P., Tronson, D., & Ritchie, R.J. (2006). Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding. Journal of Biological Education, 40(2), 84-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2006.9656019

Svandova, K. (2014). Secondary School Students’ Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 10(1), 59-67. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2014.1018a

Selmaoui, S., Alami, A.,  Agorram, B.,  Khzami, S.-E., & Aityahia, F. E. (2017). Conceptions relating to food education in the moroccan texbooks: What models of health? British Journal of Education, 5(8), 30-42.

Selmaoui, S., & Aznadi, A. (2011). Photosynthesis in Moroccan programs and conceptions of students about this concept. Educational Research and Development Center University of Montcon.

Tlala, B., Kibirige, I., & Osodo, J. (2014). Investigating grade 10 learners’ achievements in Photosynthesis using Conceptual Change Model. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 13(2), 155-164.

Ulfa, K., Sri Anggraeni,  S., & Bambang, S. (2017). How to Improve the Mastery of Students' Concept on Photosynthesis Topic? Journal of Physics Conference Series, 895, 012137. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/895/1/012137

Urey, M. (2018). Defining the relationship between the perceptions and the misconceptions about photosynthesis topic of the preservice science teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(4), 813 - 826.

Zalta, N. -E. (2019). Experiment in physics. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.