logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
criminology descriptive phenomenology higher education licensure examination

Factors and Challenges Influencing the Criminologist Licensure Examination Performance through the Non-passers’ Lens

Albert C. Albina , James Y. Balasabas , Ben John I. Laquinon , Muffit Herlyn Pampilo , Liza J. Caballero

This study aimed to explore the perceived factors that influenced the success and challenges experienced when taking licensure examination among Bache.


This study aimed to explore the perceived factors that influenced the success and challenges experienced when taking licensure examination among Bachelor of Science in Criminology graduates of a state university in the Philippines who failed in the Criminologist Licensure Examinations (CLE). Descriptive-correlational research design was utilized to analyze quantitative data, and Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenology was used for the thematic analysis of qualitative data. The quantitative findings revealed that home and family factor has a high influence on the success in CLE, while student factor, school factor, review center factor, and personal factor have average influence. Further, ten clusters of themes emerged as factors that influence the success in CLE. Among them were interest and focus on the program, and availability of qualified and dedicated faculty. Among the themes that emerged as challenges were lack of preparedness for the exam because of one’s work, and personal and social pressures. There is a significant difference on the respondents’ perception towards the factors that influence the success in CLE when they are grouped according to sex. Regarding the challenges associated with preparing for and taking the CLE, a significant difference is only observed when respondents are grouped according to their civil status. Generally, married respondents have higher weighted means than the single ones. This implies that the identified challenges affected married respondents more than the single ones. These results can be used to make policies and initiate programs that would enhance graduates’ success in the exam by providing appropriate interventions and early remediations.

Keywords: Criminology, descriptive phenomenology, higher education, licensure examination.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Alhifany, A., Almalki, F., Alatawi, Y., Basindowh, L., Almajnoni, S., Elrggal, M., Alotaibi, A., Almarzoky Abuhussain, S., & Almangour, T. (2020). Association between graduates' factors and success rate on the Saudi Pharmacist Licensure Examination: A single-institution cross-sectional study. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28(12), 1830-1833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.11.009

Amanonce, J. T., & Maramag, A. M. (2020). Licensure examination performance and academic achievement of teacher education graduates. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(3), 510-516. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v9i3.20614

Arathuzik, D., & Aber, C. (1998). Factors associated with national council licensure examination-registered nurse success. Journal of Professional Nursing, 14(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S8755-7223(98)80040-9

Bajeta, A. A., Manalo, M. M., Montalbo, N. W. V., Vino, J. M. M., & Mojares, R. E. (2015). Performance in the Criminology Licensure Examination as basis for improvement of one private school in the Philippines. College of Criminology Research Journal, 6, 1-14. https://bit.ly/2XWCrAm

Balagtas, M. U., & Gerundio, M. G. (2014). Exploring formula for success in Teachers’ Licensure Examination in the Philippines. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 5(1). http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=6548  

Barrera, D. J., Cagang, S., & Capistrano, D. (2013). Academic and admission variables as predictors of results in the Criminologist Licensure Examination. Prism, 18(1), 65-74. https://bit.ly/2Zzcwz3

Commission on Higher Education. (2018). CMO No. 05, series of 2018. Policies, standard and guidelines for the Bachelor of Science in Criminology (B.S. Criminology) program. https://bit.ly/3IrP5K0

Commission on Higher Education. (2017). Proposed CMO subject: Minimum requirement for libraries of higher education institutions common to all programs. https://bit.ly/3DtlI6q

Constantino, M. D., Geronimo, R. K., Elizaga, M. A., Poquiz, M. D., Espinosa, J. C., & Tolentino, M. M. (2014). Correlation of internship grades and Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Licensure Examination passing rate among physical therapy graduates of a private college in Metro Manila. Health Sciences Journal, 3(1). http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=6580  

Dayaday, M. G. (2018). Factors affecting the performance in the board examination of electronics engineering – University of Southern Mindanao graduates. International Journal of Current Research, 10(9), 710-715. https://doi.org/10.24941/ijcr.32291.09.2018

De Lima, M., London, L., & Manieri, E. (2011). Looking at the past to change the future: a retrospective study of associate degree in nursing graduates' National Council Licensure Examination scores. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6(3), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2011.01.001

Esmeralda, A. B., & Perez-Espinosa, J. (2015). Teacher education graduates’ performance as predictor of Licensure Examination for Teachers results. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 21(1). http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=12461  

Fontejon-Bonior, G. A., & de la Rama, P. (2018). Determinants of LET performance of BEEd, BSEd, and CPE graduates of a center of excellence in teacher education. The Educator, 7, 18-39. http://bitly.ws/jE8D

Garcia, E. C. (2011). Correlates of board examination performance of nursing graduates of Lyceum – St. Cabrini College of Allied Medicine. Lyceum of the Philippines–Laguna Research Journal, 1(1). https://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=6680

Grossbach, A., & Kuncel, N. R. (2011). The predictive validity of nursing admission measures for performance on the National Council Licensure Examination: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(2), 124-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2010.09.010

Herrero, C. C. (2015). Influence of selected factors on CPA licensure examination results. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 64, 87-93. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.64.87

Kaddoura, M. A., Dyke, O. V., & Yang, Q. (2017). Correlation between critical thinking skills and National Council Licensure Examination for registered nurses success in accelerated bachelor nursing students. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 12(1), 3-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2016.08.004 

Kwi-Soon, C., & Bok-Sun, Y. (2009). Korean nurses' experience of preparing for and taking the National Council Licensure Examination for registered nurses. Asian Nursing Research, 3(4), 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1976-1317(09)60029-3

Lascano, E. A., & Bansiong, A. J. (2017). Five-year licensure examination performance of library and information science graduates. Asian Research Journal of Educational Studies, 1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.137.2017.11.1.9

Lawson, D. M., & Till, H. (2006). Predictors of performance of students from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College on the licensure examinations of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29(7), 566-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.06.021

Lockie, N. M., Van Lanen, R. J., & Mc Gannon, T. (2013). Educational implications of nursing students' learning styles, success in chemistry, and supplemental instruction participation on National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurses Performance. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(1), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2012.04.003

Morrow, R., Rodriguez, A., & King, N. (2015). Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method. The Psychologists, 28(8), 643-644.

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847

Ong, M. B., Palompon, D., & Bañico, L. (2012). Predictors of nurses’ licensure examination performance of graduates in Cebu Normal University, Philippines. Asian Journal of Health, 2(1), 130-141. https://doi.org/10.7828/ajoh.v2i1.122  

Pariñas, M. M., & Obrero, R. L. (2012). Relevance of the topics in the Criminologist Licensure Examination review program of the University of Northern Philippines. UNP Research Journal, 21(1). http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=6971

Pasia, J. S., Garzon, M. U., & Bauyot, M. M. (2012). Determinants of performance of graduates in the Medical Technologist Licensure Examination. Asian Journal of Health, 2(1), 16-38. https://doi.org/10.7828/ajoh.v2i1.116

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2015a). April 2015 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in thirteen (13) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/31xwKuj

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2015b). October 2015 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in twenty-four (24) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3drrGtK  

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2016a). April 2016 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in eleven (11) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3pyu2wI  

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2016b). October 2016 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in twenty-five (25) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/31qV7Kj 

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2017a). June 2017 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in twelve (12) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/32UCLl0

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2017b). June 2017 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in twelve (12) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3rE64Tp 

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2018a). June 2018 Criminologist Licensure Examination Results Released in Twelve (12) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3doKdH0 

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2018b). December 2018 Criminologist Licensure examination results released in fifteen (15) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3Ew4GG0 

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2019a). June 2019 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in thirteen (13) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3pv8DEr 

Philippine Regulation Commission. (2019b). November 2019 Criminologist Licensure Examination results released in twenty-two (22) working days [Data set]. https://bit.ly/3EuGJPr 

Serrano, N. L. (2000). TIP Mechanical engineering graduates and their performance in the licensure examinations: Inputs to educational policy. TIP Research Journal Manila, 5(1), 155-156. http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=9087  

Tan, J. B. (2014). Academic performance, aspirations, attitudes and study habits as determinants of the performance in licensure examination of accountancy graduates. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 61-70. https://bit.ly/3lHI8dM

Villarmia, J. C. (2017). Perception of graduates in their educational experience and readiness to take the Criminology Licensure Examination. SMCC Higher Education Research Journal, 5, 190-194. https://doi.org/10.18868/sher5j.05.01213.11

Yasa, C. C., & Gonzales, L. D. (2016). Predictors of performance in the nurse licensure examination of Baliuag University college of nursing graduates. Harvest, 12(2). http://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=12961  

Yei-Jin, Y. (2013). An investigation of predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes among nursing content standardized tests. Nurse Education Today, 33(12), 1523-1528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.04.004