Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context
Mustafa Bahar, Mustafa Asil, Christine M. Rubie-Davies
APA 6th edition
Bahar, M., Asil, M., & Rubie-Davies, C.M. (2018). Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(1), 113-120. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113
Bahar M., Asil M., and Rubie-Davies C.M. 2018 'Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 113-120. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113
Chicago 16th edition
Bahar, Mustafa , Asil, Mustafa and Rubie-Davies, Christine M. . "Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context". (2018)European Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 1(2018): 113-120. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113
Among school psycho-social factors with considerable effect on student outcomes are both school and classroom climate. Because how students perceive the classroom climate strongly predicts achievement, measuring classroom climate gains importance and the need for testing the existing results across cultures persists. In this study, we assessed the validity and measurement invariance of the Turkish adaptation of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) developed in English (US). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and measurement invariance (MI) analyses by sex were performed on 629 students’ data. CFA results confirmed the factorial structure of the SPPCC. Results of the MI analyses showed that the SPPCC measures the same construct for females and males in a non-English context. Latent mean comparisons revealed girls perceived the classroom climate more positively than boys. We concluded that this study in the Turkish context is a further step in developing evidence of the extent to which SPCC provides psychometrically sound scores.
Keywords: Gender invariance; personal perception; elementary education; classroom climate.
Adelman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (2005). Classroom climate. In Lee, S. W., Lowe, P. A., & Robinson E. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
AERA, APA, & NCME. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Almquist, Y. B., Modin, B., & Augustine, L. (2013). Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: A multilevel approach. Journal of School Health, 83, 690–696. doi: 10.1111/josh.12082
Arter, J.A. (1987). Assessing school and classroom climate. A consumer's guide. Portland, Or: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
Baek, S-G., & Choi, H-J. (2002). The relationship between students’ perceptions of classroom environment and their academic achievement in Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 3, 125–35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03024926
Bahar, M. (2014, April). Student perspectives of factors that determine high school and course achievement in Turkish context. Paper presented at 1st Eurasian Educational Research Congress, Istanbul/Turkey.
Beaman, R., Wheldall, K., & Kemp, C. (2006). Differential teacher attention to boys and girls in the classroom. Educational Review, 58, 339–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131910600748406
Bernardo, A. B. (2008). Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students’ achievement goals. International Journal of Psychology, 43, 886–891. doi: 10.1080/00207590701837834.
Bigler, R., Hayes, A. R., & Hamilton, V. (2013). The role of schools in the early socialization of gender differences. In R. E. Tremblay, M. Boivin, R. DeV. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development and Strategic Knowledge Cluster on Early Child Development.
Bilgiç, E., & Yurtal, F. (2009). An investigation of bullying according to classroom climate. Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama, 5, 180–194
Brekelmans, M., Sleegers, P., & Fraser, B. (2000). Teaching for active learning. In P. R. J. Simons, J. L. van der Linden, & T. Duffy (Eds.), New learning (pp. 227–242). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Brophy, J. E. (2004). Motivating students to learn. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Brophy-Herb, H. E., Lee, R. E., Nievar, M. A., & Stollak, G. (2007). Preschoolers’ social competence: Relations to family characteristics, teacher behaviors, and classroom climate. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 134–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.12.004
Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guildford.
Burnett, P. C., & Mandel, V. (2010). Praise and feedback in the primary classroom: Teachers’ and students’ perspectives. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 145–154.
Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 456–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.456
Canpolat, A. M., Kazak Cetinkalp, Z. & Ozsaker, M. (2012). Beden egitimi dersinde problem cozme becerisi ve sinif iklimi: ikinci kademe ilkogretim ogrencileri uzerine bir calisma [Problem solving skills and class climate in physical education course: a study on secondary school students]. SPORMETRE Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, X(3) 89–94.
Cerezo, F., & Ato, M. (2010). Social status, gender, classroom climate and bullying among adolescent students. Anales de Psicología, 26, 137–144.
Charles, C.M. (2002). Building classroom discipline (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Chavez, R. C. (1984). The use of high-inference measures to study classroom climates: A review. Review of Educational Research, 54, 237–261.
Chen, L. J. (1995). The study of adult classroom climate and the relationship between that and adult students' learning behavior. Bulletin of Adult and Continuing Education, 24, 231–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2016.1229072
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17–59). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Çengel, M., & Türkoğlu, A. (2015). Öğrenciler tarafından algılanan sınıf iklimi ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Student perceived classroom climate scale: Validity and reliability study]. Journal of Theory & Practice in Education, 11, 1240-1257
Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review, 58, 280–298. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.58.3.c43481778r528qw4
Djigic, G., & Stojiljkovic, S. (2011). Classroom management styles, classroom climate and school achievement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 819–828. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.310
Dorman, J. B., Aldridge, J. M., & Fraser, B. J. (2006). Using students’ assessment of classroom environment to develop a typology of secondary school classrooms. International Education Journal, 7, 906–915.
Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2007). Early schooling: The handicap of being poor and male. Sociology of Education, 80, 114–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070708000202
Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2005). Sensitivity of fit indexes to misspecified structural or measurement model components: Rationale of two-index strategy revisited. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 343–367. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1203_1
Fan, X., & Sivo, S. A. (2007). Sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification and model types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 509–529. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1203_1
Flicker, E. S., & Hoffman, J. A. (2006). Guiding Children's Behavior: Developmental Discipline in the Classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Fraser, B.J. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environments Research, 1, 7–33. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:100993251
Fraser, B. J. (1981, April). Validity and use of individualized classroom environment questionnaire. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles, CA. (ED204351)
Fraser, B. J., Anderson, G. J., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Assessment of learning environments: Manual for Learning Environment Inventory (LEI) and My Class Inventory (MCI), (3rd Ed.). Perth: Western Australian Institute of Technology.
Fraser, B.J., & Fisher, D. L. (1982). Predicting students’ outcomes from their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 498–518. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312019004498
Gillen, A., Wright, A., & Spink, L. (2011). Student perceptions of a positive climate for learning: A case study. Educational Psychology in Practice, 27, 65–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2011.549355
Goh, S. C., & Fraser, B.J. (1998). Teacher interpersonal behavior, classroom environment and student outcomes in primary mathematics in Singapore. Learning Environments Research, 1, 199–229. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:100991001
Goregenli, M. (1997). Individualist-collectivist tendencies in a Turkish sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 787–794. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022197286009
Hancock, G. R. (2001). Effect size, power, and sample size determination for structured means modeling and mimic approaches to between-groups hypothesis testing of means on a single latent construct. Psychometrika, 66, 373–388. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294440
Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London, England: Routledge.
Horn, J. L., & McArdle, J. J. (1992). A practical and theoretical guide to measurement invariance in aging research. Experimental Aging Research, 18, 117–144. doi: 10.1080/03610739208253916
Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6, 149–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52
Hughes, J. N., Im, M. H., & Allee, P. J. (2015). Effect of school belonging trajectories in grades 6-8 on achievement: Gender and ethnic differences. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 493–507. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2015.08.001
International Test Commission (ITC) (2001). International test commission guidelines for test adaptation. London, UK: Author.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Anderson, D. (1983). Social interdependence and classroom climate. Journal of Psychology, 114, 135–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1983.9915406
Karsi, F. (2012). Ortaogretim ogrencilerinin sinif atmosferine iliskin algilari ile akademik basarilari arasindaki iliski. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.
King, R. B., & McInerney, D. M. (2014). Mapping changes in students’ English and math self-concepts: A latent growth model study. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 34, 581–597. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.909009
Koth, C. W., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). A multilevel study of predictors of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of classroom-level factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 96–104. doi: 10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206
Künkül, T. (2008). Öğrencilerin sinif içi etkinliklere katilim düzeyleri ile algiladiklari sinif atmosferi arasindaki ilişki [The analysis of the relationship between students’ participation level of classroom activities and classroom atmosphere]. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
LaRocque, M. (2008). Assessing perceptions of the environment in elementary classrooms: The link with achievement. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24, 289–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667360802488732
Mainhard, T. M., Brekelmans, M., Brok, P., & Wubbels, T. (2011). The development of the classroom social climate during the first months of the school year. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 190–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.06.002
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2
McInerney, D. M. (2008). Personal investment, culture and learning: Insights into school achievement across Anglo, Indigenous, Asian and Lebanese students in Australia. International Journal of Psychology, 43, 870–879. doi: 10.1080/00207590701836364
Meissel, K., & Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2015). Cultural invariance of goal orientation and self-efficacy in New Zealand: Relations with achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 92–111. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12103
Millsap, R. E. (2012). Statistical approaches to measurement invariance. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Mitchell, M. M., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2013). Examining classroom influences on student perceptions of school climate: The role of classroom management and exclusionary discipline strategies. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 599–610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.05.005
Moos, R. H. (1979). Evaluating educational environments: Procedures, measures, findings and policy implications. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mucherah, W. M. (2003). The influence of technology on the classroom climate of social studies classrooms: A multidimensional approach. Learning Environments Research, 6, 37–57. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:102290360
Muthén L. K., & Muthén B. O. (2013). Version 7.1 Mplus language addendum. Available online at: www.statmodel.com
OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful?–Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV). OECD, Paris, France.
Özdikmenli-Demir, G., & Sayıl, M. (2009). Individualism-collectivism and conceptualizations of interpersonal relationships among Turkish children and their mothers. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 371–387. doi:10.1177/0265407509350557
Ponitz, C. C., Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., Brock, L. L., & Nathanson, L. (2009). Early adjustment, gender differences, and classroom organizational climate in first grade. The Elementary School Journal, 110, 142–162. https://doi.org/10.1086/605470
Raskauskas, J. L., Gregory, J., Harvey, S. T., Rifshana, F., & Evans, I. M. (2010). Bullying among primary school children in New Zealand: Relationships with prosocial behaviour and classroom climate. Educational Research, 52, 1–13. doi: 10.1080/00131881003588097
Reynolds, J. R., & Bamford, M. J. (2016). School gender culture and student subjective well-being. Sex Roles, 74, 62–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0557-y
Rowe, E. W., Kim, S., Baker, J. A., Kamphaus, R. W., & Horne, A. M. (2010). Student personal perception of classroom climate: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 858–879. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164410378085
Rubie-Davies, C. M., & Peterson, E. R. (2010). Teacher expectations and beliefs: Influences on the socioemotional environment of the classroom. In C.M. Rubie-Davies (Ed.), Educational psychology: Concepts, research and challenges (pp. 134–159). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2015). Becoming a high expectation teacher: Raising the bar. London, England: Routledge.
Rubie-Davies, C. M., Asil, M., & Teo, T. (2015). Assessing measurement invariance of the student personal perception of classroom climate across different ethnic groups. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(5), 1-9. doi: 10.1177/0734282915612689
Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 437–460.
Sadker, D. (1973). Dimensions of the elementary school environment: A factor analytic study. The Journal of Educational Research, 66, 441–442. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1973.10884526
Sağkal, A. S., Kabasakal, Z. T., & Türnüklü, A. (2015). Turkish adaptation of the connected classroom climate inventory (CCCI). Elementary Education Online, 14, 1179–1192. http://dx.doi.org/10.17051/io.2015.30422
Sass, D. A., Schmitt, T. A., & Marsch, H. W. (2014). Evaluating model fit with ordered categorical data within a measurement invariance framework: A comparison of estimators. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21, 167–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.882658
Schmitt, N., & Kuljanin, G. (2008). Measurement invariance: Review of practice and implications. Human Resource Management Review, 18, 210–222. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.03.003
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195–208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3204_1
Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My class inventory: Short form as an accountability tool for elementary school counselors to measure classroom climate. Professional School Counseling, 9, 37–48. https://doi.org/10.5330/prsc.9.1.y720844684111402
Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Kim, D., & Watson, M. (1996). Teacher practices associated with students’ sense of the classroom as a community. Social Psychology of Education, 1, 235–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02339892
Somersalo, H., Solantaus, T., & Almqvist, F. (2002). Classroom climate and the mental health of primary school children. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 285–290. doi: 10.1080/08039480260242787
Sriklaub, K., Wongwanich S., & Wiratchai, N. (2015). Development of the classroom climate measurement model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 1353–1359.
Stark, S., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Drasgow, F. (2006). Detecting differential item functioning with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: Toward a unified strategy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1292–1306. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1292
Şeker, A. (2000). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin iletişim becerileri ile sınıf atmosferi arasındaki ilişkinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Investigation of communication skills of classroom teachers and classroom atmosphere with respect to various variables]. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.
Sendur, E. (1999). İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sınıf atmosferine ilişkin algıları ile başarı güdüsü arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between classroom atmosphere and achievement motivation of primary fifth grade students]. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey.
Van de Gaer, E., Pustjens, H., Van Damme, J., & De Munter, A. (2006). Tracking and the effects of school-related attitudes on the language achievement of boys and girls. British Journal of Sociology of Education,27, 293–309. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425690600750478
Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A Review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442810031002
Villasana, M., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2015). Cross-cultural validity of the “classroom motivational climate questionnaire: Comparison between French and Spanish Students. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 20, 227–246. doi: 10.1387/RevPsicodidact.13034
Vinson, A. W. (1977). An Investigation concerning personality characteristics, classroom climate and academic achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 46, 334–343. doi: 10.2307/2966777
Voyer, D., & Voyer, S. D. (2014). Gender differences in scholastic achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1174–204. doi: 10.1037/a0036620
Walker, W. J. (1971). The measurement of classroom environment. New York, NY: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C., Bureau of Research. (ERIC No. ED061555)
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
Wiseman, A. W., & Baker, D. P. (2007). Educational achievements in international context. In B. J. Bank, S. Delamont, & C. Marshall (Eds.), Gender and education: An encyclopedia (pp. 407-414). London, England: Praeger.
Yu, C. Y. (2002). Evaluating cut-off criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
Zusho, A., & Clayton, K. (2011). Culturalizing achievement goal theory and research. Educational Psychologist, 46, 239–260. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.614526