Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context

Mustafa Bahar, Mustafa Asil, Christine M. Rubie-Davies

APA 6th edition
Bahar, M., Asil, M., & Rubie-Davies, C.M. (2018). Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(1), 113-120. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113

Bahar M., Asil M., and Rubie-Davies C.M. 2018 'Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 113-120. Available from:

Chicago 16th edition
Bahar, Mustafa , Asil, Mustafa and Rubie-Davies, Christine M. . "Measurement Invariance of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) in the Turkish Context". (2018)European Journal of Educational Research 7, no. 1(2018): 113-120. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113


Among school psycho-social factors with considerable effect on student outcomes are both school and classroom climate.  Because how students perceive the classroom climate strongly predicts achievement, measuring classroom climate gains importance and the need for testing the existing results across cultures persists.  In this study, we assessed the validity and measurement invariance of the Turkish adaptation of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) developed in English (US).  Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and measurement invariance (MI) analyses by sex were performed on 629 students’ data.  CFA results confirmed the factorial structure of the SPPCC.  Results of the MI analyses showed that the SPPCC measures the same construct for females and males in a non-English context.  Latent mean comparisons revealed girls perceived the classroom climate more positively than boys.  We concluded that this study in the Turkish context is a further step in developing evidence of the extent to which SPCC provides psychometrically sound scores.

Keywords: Gender invariance; personal perception; elementary education; classroom climate.


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