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Facilitating effective mathematics learning and higher mathematics achievement have long been recognized as a key to the scientific and technological advancement of the African continent. While the central role that language proficiency plays in mathematics teaching and learning has received an overwhelming research attention in the literature over the past two decades, this is not the case among African policy-makers and political leaders. Drawing mainly from our professional experiences as mathematics educators and from the international research literature, our primary intent in this paper is to answer this question: How does the learning of mathematics in English at the basic school level help or hinder students’ mathematical proficiency? To answer this question, the paper is organized as follows. The first part, the introduction, gives a brief overview of the language of learning and teaching in Africa. The second part describes the method and conceptual framework undergirding the research. In the third section, we have analyzed the effects of mathematics learning and teaching through English for basic students whose mother tongue is a Ghanaian language. The conclusion offers four recommendations for developing and improving the mathematics proficiency of students in basic schools.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.3.124
Pages: 124-139
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2

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This study is a departure from discussions on why community college students do not transfer in large numbers, but instead, provides an analysis of Latino students from community college who have successfully transferred to Tier 1 universities. The conceptual framework included student engagement theory (Kuh, 2003), the support for student autonomy (Koestner et al., 2015), and the importance of students studying to mastery (Sarwat & Irshad, 2012).  These theories were applied to the central research question, ‘What strategies do Latino students from a community college use to create a successful transition from community college to Tier 1 colleges and universities?’ The researcher generated six themes on how Latino students experienced successful transfer: institutional support, student transfer experiences, strategies to adapt, financial support, studying to mastery, and family support as major factors for academic success.   These findings would be significant to student development specialists in community colleges.  Further, such findings can be used to support Latino community college students as they sought transfer to four-year colleges and universities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.2.113
Pages: 113-122
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703
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1267
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4

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The aim of the research is to determine the perceptions of the preservice science teachers about the photosynthesis and to reveal the relation between these perceptions and the misconceptions of the existing concepts. In the research, field scanning method was used as a descriptive research method. The sample of the research is composed of 355 preservice science teachers trained in different universities. For the selection of the sample, purposeful sample selection was used and attention was paid to the fact that the preservice science teachers had taken the General Biology-I and General Biology-II courses at the undergraduate level in the determination of the class level to be included in the study. The "Photosynthesis Concept Achievement Test" (PCAT) developed by the researcher and composed of 4 questions was used as a data collection tool. Quantitative data obtained from the study were analyzed using SPSS.20 package program while content analysis was performed in the analysis of qualitative data. As a result of the research, it was determined that the preservice science teachers' perceptions of photosynthesis were in the direction of chemical and biological approaches and that the teacher candidates preferred the chemical approach rather than the biological approach. However, preservice science teachers who prefer the chemical approach have reached the conclusion that they are in much more misconception than the biologically approaching teacher candidates.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.813
Pages: 813-826
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1049
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876
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6

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10

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The purpose of the present study is to test a hypothetical model in order to examine the association between students’ sense of classroom belonging along with four other university class-level variables including faculty-student relationships, connected classroom climate referring peer relationships, loneliness and classroom identity. It is intended to draw attention of teacher educators to the importance of creating sense of community at classroom level through this study in order to improve the quality of teacher education. With this aim, pre-service teachers attending the faculty of education were selected as sample of the study (N= 1425). Each measures used in this study was adapted for college-level students through confirmatory factor analysis in order to test specific predictions concerning each measure’s structure and the results revealed that  all measures have adequate psychometric properties. The model examined with structural equation modeling was an excellent fit with the data, and the results indicated that the fitted model explained 50% of the variance in classroom identity; 47% of the variance in sense of classroom belonging; 14% of the variance in classroom climate; and 9% of the variance in loneliness. Results and implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.87
Pages: 87-97
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472
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791
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8

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12

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The aim of this study is to present pre-service biology teachers with reading texts about the research of Van Helmont and Joseph Priestley relate to the subject of photosynthesis, for their familiarization with the processual and contextual aspects of science and their understanding of the nature of science, and to reveal the extent to which these texts contribute to the teacher candidates. The study was carried out by “action research method”.  The sample consisted of 66 biology pre-service teachers studying at Karadeniz Technical University between the years of 2016 to 2018. In this study, two separate reading texts were prepared in order to increase pre-service teachers’ processual and contextual understanding, and after the teacher candidates had read the texts, they were asked to answer the related questions. Percentage and frequency values were determined by grouping the answers as “correct, partially correct, incorrect and unanswered”. The fact that in this study, only 47% of the pre-service teachers were able to form a correct hypothesis means that their skills in this regard are in need of development. Candidates experienced some difficulty in interpreting statements that were not given explicitly in the text. The candidates' level of critical thinking is at a good level. It has been determined that they have post-modern view as epistemological belief. There is a need for designing instructional materials covering conceptual, processual, contextual dimensions of science in different subjects at university level and presenting them to biology teachers in book format.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.633
Pages: 633-646
cloud_download 412
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412
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1223
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0

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0

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This study considers the interaction between an e-learning system, the Blackboard system, and the students who use it in Saudi Arabia. While previous work exists, there is limited consideration of the assessment of the preferences of e-learning system usability variables based on students’ perspectives, especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. This paper attempts to fill the gap by investigating the relative importance of the design criteria developed for e-learning system usability evaluation from the students’ perspective in Saudi tertiary education. Based on reviewed literature, a set of usability principles was developed that have had an influence in the students’ learning process and use of the e-learning system. The list includes system navigation, system learnability, visual design, information quality, instructional assessment and system interactivity. An exploratory study was carried out to identify the most important usability design characteristics from a student’s perspective and then evaluate the overall usability of the current e-learning system, based on this subset. A quantitative approach was adopted to weigh usability design characteristics, based on 181 learners’ perceptions. The sample consists of undergraduates who are users of a web-based e-learning system in a university in Saudi Arabia. The research instrument was tested for construct validity and reliability. The analysed results have shown that information quality is the most important dimension followed by the navigation of the e-learning system. The study has also revealed that the system learnability and visual design came third and fourth in order of importance of e-learning system usability assessment. Finally, the least important design categories that influenced the e-learning system usability assessment were instructional assessment and system interactivity. The empirical results of this study may help to provide insights for designers and evaluators leading to a more effective approach to improve the usability and uptake of the e-learning system.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.839
Pages: 839-855
cloud_download 1222
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25
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1222
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1095
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25

Scopus
43

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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the academic motivations and academic achievements of pre-service visual arts teachers in the Division of Art Education in the Department of Fine Arts in the Faculty of Education in terms of some variables. The study group consisted of 127 (79 female/ 48 male) students in the division of art education. As the data collection tool, the “Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)”, developed by Vallerand et al. and then, translated into Turkish for university students by Karaguven, was used to find out the academic motivations of students, and the personal information form was used to get the personal information of students in the study. In the research, in which the relational screening method was used, the descriptive analysis was applied to determine the motivation levels of pre-service visual arts teachers; independent sampling t-test to compare their average scores according to gender; one-way variance analysis to test according to the class variable, and Pearson Correlation test to determine the relationship between their academic motivation and academic achievement. The findings of the study show that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of pre-service visual arts teachers are at a good level. It was found that the amotivation levels of pre-service visual arts teachers were at a low level. As the average scores according to gender were investigated, the meaningful difference was encountered in favour of female participants for intrinsic motivations. It was found that the intrinsic motivations of females related to the achievement were higher. An increase, from 1st year to 4th years students, was observed in terms of the academic motivation levels of pre-service visual arts teachers according to the class variable. However, no meaningful difference was encountered between the average scores of the students' academic motivations according to the class variable. It was found that the relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement was low.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.857
Pages: 857-866
cloud_download 589
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589
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641
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3

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2

Psychometric Assessment and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Grit-S Scale among Omani and American Universities’ Students

grit psychometric properties achievement goal orientations cross-cultural study

Amal Alhadabi , Said Aldhafri , Hussain Alkharusi , Ibrahim Al-Harthy , Hafidha AlBarashdi , Marwa Alrajhi


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The current study aimed to adopt and assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Grit-S among Omani and American students (N = 487) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale’s construct validity was estimated by investigating its associations with achievement goal orientations (AGOs). EFA results suggested that a two-factor solution (i.e., perseverance of effort [G_PE] and consistency of interest [G_CI]) was the best factorial structure, explaining 47.74% and 51.02% of the variance in the Omani and American samples, respectively. The factors had good reliability coefficients in the two samples. Related to the intercultural differences, G_PE explained more variance among Omanis (31.02%) relative to American sample, whereas G_CI explained a larger proportion of variance among Americans (36.86%) compared with Omani sample. The first level of measurement invariance, configural invariance, was not supported, necessitating the investigation of the other levels of measurement invariance using a new sample. Grit correlated positively with mastery and performance-approach goals (r = .29 and .12, respectively) and negatively with avoidance goals (r = -.25), supporting the scale’s construct validity. These findings showed that Grit-S scale can be used as valid and reliable assessment tool to assess student interest and perseverance in the academic context in Arabic/Omani and American cultures.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1175
Pages: 1175-1191
cloud_download 350
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350
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609
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6

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6

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The article reveals the problem of empirical research of training higher education institutions teachers in the context of the master’s degree programme. This study specifies and adapts the methods of diagnostics, criteria for conducting teacher training which are reasonable, psychologically and pedagogically approved and could be implemented in the institutions of higher education of different profiles. It was found out that the training of a teacher within the boundaries of the master’s degree programme of institutions of higher education is an actual task of three-level training of a specialist in Ukraine and requires a differentiated approach for institutions of higher education of various profiles. The components of the programme, based on their comparative characteristics, the status of teacher training in higher education institutions of different profiles with the application of certain criteria, indicators and levels were determined. Comparative analysis of the results of determining the levels of activity empathy and pedagogical reflection formation at the final stage of the study showed objective differences in teacher training in the context of the master’s degree programme of institutions of higher education of different profiles. The perspective directions of the problem under consideration are the study of the didactic conditions of effective teacher training for the master's degree in higher education and the development of the Concept of master’s training in higher education institutions on this basis, the analysis of the influence of the main factors on the formation of a teacher of a higher educational institution in the context of a master’s degree programme, in the profile professional training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.67
Pages: 67-78
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571
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742
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5

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5

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Research productivity plays an important role in the prestige and reputation among higher education institutions. However, the time spent to do research among Filipino academics is the most pressing issue since they can barely meet the requirement for research productivity. Further, the lack of time for data gathering aggravated the drawbacks for research productivity. Data gathering is at the core of almost all research activity, the absence of factual and reliable data will lead to an invalid and illogical inference. In research years, there has been a massive agglomeration of data in large volumes coming from diverse sources pertaining to almost all facets of human activity which is worthy of investigation- known today as Big Data. This research has two (2) main objectives; the first is to find out the underlying reasons why Filipino academics are not enthusiastic to do research. The second is to evaluate the value of big data utilization for research productivity based on the assessment of the faculty members. This research used the Rasch model to measure the responses of Filipino academics with regards to their reasons for not doing enough research work as well as on their assessment for value creation of big data utilization using a polytomous item response selection scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.423
Pages: 423-431
cloud_download 781
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781
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809
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2

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2

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In this study we aimed to investigate the role of hope, secure attachment with the parents, and satisfaction levels of the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) of university students in predicting their happiness levels. A total of 558 university students were recruited and 70% of them were female and 30% of them were male. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 29. The data were collected in classroom settings using personal information form, the Oxford Happiness Scale, the Attachment with the Parents Scale, the Basic Psychological Needs Scale, and the Dispositional Hope Scale. Results indicated that that the satisfaction levels of the competence needs were the most powerful predictor of happiness among university students. The satisfaction levels of autonomy, relatedness needs, and a secure attachment to the father, along with hope contributed little to the explanation of happiness; whereas, a secure attachment to the mother was not a predictor of happiness of the university students. The findings were discussed within the framework of the developmental characteristics of university students and the characteristics of collectivist societies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.433
Pages: 433-444
cloud_download 816
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816
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948
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6

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5

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As we have seen from the current COVID-19 pandemic, misconceptions concerning viruses can lead to disease spread and panic. Therefore, it is imperative to determine misconceptions held concerning epidemics and pandemics. One virus that warrants study of misconceptions, albeit given limited attention in the West, is the Ebola virus. An assessment of college students’ knowledge and misconceptions about the Ebola virus was created and validated using data from 203 non-science majors at a Midwestern United States university. The data were analyzed using both classical and Rasch measurement methods to make a case for the validity of the assessment and to explore students’ misconceptions. The assessment was shown to be a valid and useful measure for students’ knowledge and misconceptions concerning Ebola. Integrating a confidence scale into students’ responses made the scale more reliable and assisted in identifying students’ tenacious misconceptions. Students displayed multiple misconceptions about viruses, including confusion between the characteristics of viruses and prokaryotes.  Students also displayed misconceptions about Ebola itself, including the overestimation of the number of Ebola strains and the number of patients who experience massive blood loss, misunderstandings about the incubation period, and overestimation of the mortality in comparison to other diseases like Influenza and Anthrax. This assessment can be used as a starting point in future studies to determine what misconceptions people have about Ebola and which types of educational and behavioral interventions need to be undertaken.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.579
Pages: 579-602
cloud_download 403
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403
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760
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2

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2

Analysis of Training Offers on Active Methodologies for University Teachers in Spain

university teacher training training needs training offers

Lina Higueras-Rodriguez , Maria del Mar Garcia-Vita , Marta Medina-Garcia


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The current offer of training courses for university teachers is due, among other needs, to the implementation of an educational model based on student learning, promoting the use of active methodologies for their motivation and academic performance. An exploratory-descriptive and ideographic study is presented where the main technique is the analysis of content. To this end, 15 Spanish universities with the greatest prestige were analyzed according to the parameters of the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in relation to the topics related to active methodologies and the profile of university teachers. The results show the different teacher training courses that have been carried out during the 2019/2020 academic year. We find that there are more universities that present more training of this type than others, and who this type of training is aimed at: new teachers and teachers with professional experience. The conclusions are related to the importance of the courses for the professional development of university teachers, since they should not be anchored in the same methodology, but should be open to new challenges and always taking into account the students, enhancing their motivation and academic performance.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1223
Pages: 1223-1234
cloud_download 303
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303
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552
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3

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4

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This research aims to investigate the effect of socio-scientific issues (SSI) based instruction on preservice science teachers’ soft skills and environmental awareness. By applying cluster random sampling, 83 preservice science teachers (PSTs) were selected from the Department of Science Education at a university in Indonesia. The participants were divided into two groups which comprised the experimental group who were taught using SSI-based instruction, while the control group received direct instruction. The quasi-experimental study was carried out through a pre- and posttest control group design. Data was gathered quantitatively using soft skills and environmental awareness questionnaires. The soft skills questionnaire comprised six sub-skills questions: communication, collaboration, problem-solving, creativity, teamwork, and social interaction. The environmental awareness questionnaire contained questions about the PSTs’ attitudes, behavior, and willingness to act. These sub-skills were developed based on literature studies and reviews of previous studies. Face validity was conducted by the experts, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.84 (for soft skills) and 0.86 (for environmental awareness) were obtained. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The result showed that SSI-based instruction had a significant effect on improving preservice science teachers’ soft skills and environmental awareness. After being taught using SSI-based instruction, all the sub-skills of the soft skills of the experimental group had increased compared to before. A similar trend was also found in their scores for environmental awareness. All the components of environmental awareness, after lecturing using SSI-based instruction, showed a significant increase compared to before. These results support the claim that SSI-based instruction fosters soft skills and promotes environmental awareness.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.161
Pages: 161-174
cloud_download 978
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978
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1412
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10

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11

Implementation of Four-Tier Multiple-Choice Instruments Based on the Partial Credit Model in Evaluating Students’ Learning Progress

learning progress four-tier change of state of matter partial-credit model

Lukman Abdul Rauf Laliyo , Syukrul Hamdi , Masrid Pikoli , Romario Abdullah , Citra Panigoro


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One of the issues that hinder the students’ learning progress is the inability to construct an epistemological explanation of a scientific phenomenon. Four-tier multiple-choice (hereinafter, 4TMC) instrument and Partial-Credit Model were employed to elaborate on the diagnosis process of the aforementioned problem. This study was to develop and implement the four-tier multiple-choice instrument with Partial-Credit Model to evaluate students’ learning progress in explaining the conceptual change of state of matter. This research applied a development research referring to the test development model by Wilson. The data were obtained through development and validation techniques on 20 4TMC items tested to 427 students. On each item, the study applied diagnostic-summative assessment and certainty response index. The students’ conceptual understanding level was categorized based on the combination of their answer choices; the measurement generated Partial-Credit Model for 1 parameter logistic (IPL) data. Analysis of differences was based on the student level class using Analysis of Variants (One-way ANOVA). This study resulted in 20 valid and reliable 4TMC instruments. The result revealed that the integration of 4TMC test and Partial-Credit Model was effective to be treated as the instrument to measure students’ learning progress. One-way ANOVA test indicated the differences among the students’ competence based on the academic level. On top of that, it was discovered that low-ability students showed slow progress due to the lack of knowledge as well as a misconception in explaining the Concept of Change of State of Matter. All in all, the research regarded that the diagnostic information was necessary for teachers in prospective development of learning strategies and evaluation of science learning.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.825
Pages: 825-840
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298
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574
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6

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5

Smart Automated Language Teaching Through the Smart Sender Platform

higher education foreign language teaching smart technology automated delivery smart sender platform

Mariia Lychuk , Nataliya Bilous , Svitlana Isaienko , Lesya Gritsyak , Oleg Nozhovnik


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The purpose of the research was to identify whether the English language e-classes that are automated and delivered through the Smart Sender platform influence the students’ attendance and procrastination rates, their motivation, time management skills, cognitive processing speed, and satisfaction. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods to monitor students’ attendance and procrastination rates, motivation and engagement, time management skills, thinking speed, and satisfaction. The questionnaire on learning motivation, engagement, and competence, the time management skills test, the mental speed test, and the course satisfaction questionnaire were used to collect data. The focus group discussion questionnaire was used to obtain verbal feedback for the participants. The Smart Sender platform proved effective as an instructional tool for teaching the English Language to students majoring in Philology, International Business, and Law. The automated delivery of the English language e-classes was effective in addressing the issues of dropouts and procrastination in distance learning through automation of the lesson delivery based on the ‘push’ factor. It increased students’ motivation, improves time management skills, and satisfaction. The quantitative findings showed that the students experienced a positive change in attendance, motivation and learning engagement, time management skills, and thinking speed due to the intervention. The students perceived the automated delivery-based approach to language teaching positively. They reported that the delivery approach content met the participants’ expectations and needs. Focus group discussion revealed that the intervention changed their learning behaviour and strategies which were considered the improvements of the quality learning outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.841
Pages: 841-854
cloud_download 441
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441
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711
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7

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5

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The progressive integration of mobile technology in the classroom is generating new scenarios to innovate teaching methods. The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions of university students toward the use of Socrative and its implications in gamified learning situations. This is a descriptive-survey investigation, complemented with content analysis techniques. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed ad hoc by Quiroga-Estévez et al. and structured interviews. The sample consisted of undergraduate students (n=472) of the degree of Primary Education from the Faculty of Education Sciences of a Spanish university. The results show significant changes in the learning process of the students, in social relations and in the teaching methodology.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.1009
Pages: 1009-1022
cloud_download 559
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559
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711
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5

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10

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This study examines the basic underlying structure of burnout experiences among teachers in Malaysia by discovering the challenges which lead them to experience burnout. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, the current study explores the coping strategies that these teachers used to remain in their profession. Ten teachers from two public high schools participated in the study. The data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed using the constant comparison method. The findings revealed challenges that cause teachers to experience burnout, which are student misbehaviour, insufficient parental collaboration, occupational stress in the teaching environment, and negative emotions. The themes related to the coping strategies used to remain in the teaching profession are understanding teaching and learning, positive approach, individual factors, and support system. This paper lists some recommendations for managing the issue of teacher burnout and facilitate teacher retention is proposed, which includes providing training and development activities for teachers, increasing salaries, helping teachers develop coping strategies, and creating adequate support systems.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1075
Pages: 1075-1088
cloud_download 1049
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1049
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917
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3

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2

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This study aims to present the potential of Participatory Action Research (PAR) to bring together the experiences of teachers and researchers with the intention of improving teaching practices and students’ learning outcomes. Participants in the study were 7 teachers, their 160 fifths grade students, and researchers (authors). Teachers and researchers participated as partners in all collaborative activities during the period of 12 weeks.  All teachers assisted by the researcher (first author) who serves as a teacher at the same school, were involved in implementing the reciprocal teaching method (RTM) in math classes. They examined each step of the implementation of this method in order to investigate whether it has an impact on student achievement in solving mathematical word problems. Teachers observed the work of students in their classes, whereas in the joint meetings they discussed occasional ambiguities as well as issues that were most challenging for them and their students. The results showed that there was a significant improvement of the students’ results in the post-test of the mathematical word problems. The analysis of teachers' reflections highlights the benefits of collaboration within the PAR project, both for students and teachers. The study suggests that the PAR model can be used effectively within school settings as a research model, and as a pedagogical practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1371
Pages: 1371-1382
cloud_download 1398
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1398
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868
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4

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3

Mathematics Teachers’ Practices of STEM Education: A Systematic Literature Review

instructional approaches mathematics stem education

Noor Anita Rahman , Roslinda Rosli , Azmin Sham Rambely , Lilia Halim


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Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is regarded as one of the formulas to embracing many of our imminent challenges. STEM education benefits the learners by encouraging interest in STEM disciplines. This daunting task needs everyone’s concerted efforts in creating and innovating mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for STEM education following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) by Moher et al. (2015). The reviewed articles were published from 2016 to 2020 and accessed using the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases. Three themes for best practices were identified namely (a) core competencies encompassing 21st-century teaching skills; (b) instructional designs; and (c) requisite STEM execution. Results of PRISMA determined the dominant STEM practices were critical thinking, communication, collaboration, problem-solving, research-based pedagogy, problem-based learning and project-based learning, technological integration, accessibility, professional development and learning support, evidence of effectiveness, access to materials and practitioner support, and scalability. Mathematics teachers should determine the best STEM practices to employ even though there is a lack of studies on integrated STEM domains. When more students are interested in venturing and exploring into the field of STEM, the high demand for STEM related careers could be met by the younger generation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1541
Pages: 1541-1559
cloud_download 1077
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1077
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911
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13

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19

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