logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
social studies instructional curriculum skills social interaction

Skills in Social Studies Curricula in Turkey: An Examination in the Context of Socio-Cultural Interaction

Zafer Ibrahimoglu , Selda San

The aim of this study was to chronologically examine the contents of the social studies curricula implemented in Turkey in terms of skills teaching in.


The aim of this study was to chronologically examine the contents of the social studies curricula implemented in Turkey in terms of skills teaching in the context of socio-cultural interaction. In the study, the social studies curricula used since 1967 were subjected to content analysis, and the skills aimed to be taught to students in the contents of these curricula were listed. These lists were examined with reference to the socio-cultural conditions of the time they were implemented. Based on the findings, it can be stated that the contents and emphasis of skills cyclically varied across different social studies curricula in Turkey. There was sometimes an individual-centred and libertarian approach adopted in the curricula, while at other times an environment was present in which strict rules were dominant and the system was emphasized rather than the individual as part of the political and social conditions of the time.

Keywords: Social studies, instructional curriculum, skills, social interaction

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Adewuya, S. A. (1992). Historical development of social studies teaching in Nigerian secondary schools. Nigerian Journal of Educational Foundations. 3(1), 25-35.

Akgun, B. (2001). Aspects of party system development in Turkey. Turkish Studies. 2(1), 71-92, DOI: 10.1080/14683849.2001.11009174.

Akman, S. T. and Akman, I. S. (2011). Taxation of grain production in Turkey during the World War II. Hacettepe Hukuk Fakultesi Dergisi [Hacettepe Law Review]. 1(2), 73–91.

Ayan, S. (2007). Siyasi yapilanma surecinde 1961 ve 1982 anayasasi [1961 and 1982 constitutions in the process of political structuring]. C.U. Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Dergisi [Cukurova University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences]. 8(2), 1-24.

Aykac, N. (2011). Turkiye Cumhuriyetinin kurulusundan gunumuze Sosyal Bilgiler programinin egitim programi ogeleri acisindan degerlendirilmesi [Evaluating the Social Studies curricula implemented since the foundation of the Turkish Republic in terms of curriculum elements]. Elementary Education Online. 10(2), 406-420.

Banks, J. A. (2008). Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age. Educational Researcher. 37(3), 129-139.

Barth, J. L. (1994). After Nairobi: New Horizons for Social Studies. Social Education. 58(6), pp. 371-372.

Beyaztas, D. I., Kapti, S. B. and Senemoglu, N. (2013). An Analysis of Elementary School Curricula since the foundation of Republic of Turkey. Ankara University, Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 46 (2), 319-344.

Birol, S. (2012). 1961 Anayasasinda ifade ozgurlugu [Freedom of speech in the 1961 constitution]. Istanbul Universitesi Iletisim Fakultesi Dergisi [Istanbul University Faculty of Communication Journal], 43, 39-54.

Bromley, B., Meyer, J. W. and Ramirez, O. F. (2011). The worldwide spread of environmental discourse in Social Studies, history, and civics textbooks, 1970–2008. Comparative Education Review. 55(4), 517-545.

Conner, C. J. and Bohan, C. J. (2014). The Second World War’s impact on the progressive educational movement: Assessing its role. The Journal of Social Studies Research. (38). 91-102.

Cristol, D., Michell, R. and Gimbert, B. (2012). Citizenship education: A Historical perspective (1951–Present). Action in Teacher Education. 32(4), 61-69.

David, M. and Sutton, C. D. (2004). Social research. Sage: London.

Dawson, E. (1922). The social studies. Journal of Social Forces. 1(1), 22-24.

Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. (2013).  Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials. Ed: Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln, Sage: Los Angeles.1-43.

Doganay, A. (2008). Cagdas Sosyal Bilgiler anlayisi isiginda yeni Sosyal Bilgiler programinin degerlendirilmesi [Evaluating the new social studies curriculum based on the contemporary understanding of social studies]. C.U. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi [Journal of Cukurova University Institute of Social Sciences], 17 (2), 77-96.

Dokuyan, S. (2013). Food Shortage and Pass In Bread During The World War II. International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 8(5), 193-210.

Dumas, W. and Lee, W. (1978). Social Studies in French schools. The History Teacher. 11(3), 401-411.

Dunn, A. W. (1916). The social studies in secondary education. A six-year program adapted both to the 6-3-3 and the 8-4 plans of organization report of the committee on social studies of the commission on the reorganization of secondary education of the national education association. Bulletin. No. 28. Washington Government Printing Office.

Feins, D. M. and Entin, J. W. (1967). Handbook for Social Studies teaching. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York.

Georgeoff, J. (1966). Social studies in Yugoslav elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal. 66(8), 432-437.

Gomn, R. (2008). Social research methodology. Palgrave: New York.

Guleyuz, H. (2002). En son degisikliklerle ilkogretim okulu programi [Elementary education curriculum with recent changes]. Pegema publishing: Ankara.

Hodder, I. (2002). The interpretation of documents and material culture. In qualitative research methods. Ed: Darin weinberg. Balcwell: Massachusetts.

Hogeling, L. (2012). Global citizenship in primary and secondary education in the Netherlands. Ncdo: Amsterdam.

Ilkokul Programi [Elementary Education Curriculum], 1995. MEB Ilkogretim Genel Mudurlugu [Ministry of National Education, Directorate General for Elementary Education]. Ankara.

Kalaycioglu, E. (2001). Turkish Democracy: Patronageversus Governance, Turkish Studies. 2(1), 54-70, DOI: 10.1080/14683849.2001.11009173.

Kan, C. (2010). Historical development of Social Studies in U.S.A and in Turkey. GU Gazi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi [Gazi University Journal of Gazi Education Faculty], 30(2), 663-672.

Karabicak, M. (2000). Turkiye’de ekonomik istikrarsizligin tarihsel gelisimi [Historical development of economic instability in Turkey]. Suleyman Demirel Universitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi [Suleyman Demirel University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences]. 5(2), 49-65.

Karimzadeh, M.,Salehi, H., Embi, M. A., Nasiri, M. and Shojaee, M. (2014). Teaching efficacy in the classroom: Skill based training for teachers’ empowerment. English Language Teaching. 7(8), 106-115.

Keating, A. (2009). Educating Europe's citizens: moving from national to post-national models of educating for European citizenship. Citizenship Studies. 13(2), 135-151.

Keskin, Y. & Keskin, S. C. (2013). Ilkokul (Ilkogretim) Sosyal Bilgiler programlarinda milli bilinc ve baris degerinin tarihsel seruveni [National consciousness and peace in elementary social studies curricula]. TSA. 17(3), 51-86.

Kumar, A. (2012). Indian Social Studies curriculum in transition: effects of a paradigm shift in curriculum discourse. Transnational Curriculum Inquiry. 9 (1), 20-53.

Kuken, G. (2003). Ilkcagda egitim felsefesi [Educational philosophy in the first age]. Alfya Publishing: Istanbul.

Marshall, C. And Rossman, G. B. (2006). Designing qualitative research. Sage: Thousand Oaks.

Mhlauli, M. B. (2012). The Nemesis of Social Studies in Botswana primary schools. European Journal of Educational Studies. 4(1), 131-145.

Mhlauli, M. B. (2012). The role of education on citizenship development in Africa. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences. 4(1), 104-115.

Mincu, M. E. (2009). Myth, rhetoric, and ideology in eastern European education. European Education. 41(1), 55–78.

Morris, P. And Chan, K. K. (1997). Cross-curricular themes and curriculum reform in Hong Kong: Policy as discourse. British Journal of Educational Studies. 45(3), 248–262.

Morris, P., Clell and, G. M. and Ping Man, W. (1997). Explaining curriculum change: Social studies in Hong Kong. Comparative Education Review. 41(1), 27-43.

Murphy, M. M. (2006). The history and philosophy of education. Pearson: Upper Saddle River.

Mutluer, C. (2013). Sosyal Bilgiler programlarinda yer alan beceriler hakkinda Sosyal Bilgiler ogretmen gorusleri (Izmir menemen ornegi) [Teacher views on the skills included in social studies curricula (Case of Menemen, Izmir)]. Turkish Studies. 8 (7), 355-362.

Oliva, P. F. (2001). Developing the curriculum. Longman: New York.

Ozkan, M. S. and Temizer, A. (2009). The black marketing in Turkey during the World War I. The Journal of International Social Research. 2(9), 319-325.

Payne, J. (2002). A tale of two curriculums: Putting the English and Norwegian curriculum models to the test of the ‘highskills’ vision. Journal of Education and Work. 15(2), 117-143.

Peräkylä, A. And Ruusuvuori, J. (2013). Analyzing talk and text. In collecting and interpreting qualitative materials. Ed: Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln, Sage: Los Angeles.277/309.

Phillips, B. S. (1966). Social research strategy and tactics. The MacMillan company: New York.

Phillips, D. (2012). Aspects of education for democratic citizenship in post-war Germany. Oxford Review of Education. 38(5). 567-581.

Rapoport, A. (2009). A forgotten concept: Global citizenship education and state Social Studies standards. The Journal of Social Studies Research. 33(1), 91-112.

Sayari, S. (2014). Interdisciplinary Approaches to Political Clientelism and Patronage in Turkey. Turkish Studies. 15(4), 655-670, DOI: 10.1080/14683849.2014.985809.

Shafer, . M. (1964). American social studies in West German Schools. Comparative Education Review. 8(2), 146-152.

Shapiro, G. And Markoff, J. (1997). A matter of definition. In text analysis for the social sciences. Ed: Carlwc Roberts. Lawrence Erlbaum associates publishers: New Jersey.9/35.

Sofadekan, A. O. (2012). Social studies education in Nigeria: the challenge of building a nation.  PHD thesis, Brunel University, London.

Senel, A. (1982). Ilkel topluluktan uygar topluma gecis asamasinda ekonomik toplumsal dusunsel yapilarin etkilesimi [The interaction of economic and social structures in the transition from primitive community to civilised society]. Ankara Universitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakultesi Yayinlari [Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences Press]: Ankara.

Simsek, A. (2009). Reform in The Social Sciences Curriculum of Turkey: An evaluation in terms of teaching history. International Journal of Instruction. 2(2), 73-90.

Turan, I. (1986). The recruitment of cabinet ministers as a political process: Turkey, 1946-1979. International Journal of Middle East Studies. 18(4), 455-472.

Ustel, F. (2014). Makbul vatandasin pesinde [A pursuit of the good citizen]. Iletisim yayinlari: Istanbul.

Wellington, J. (1989). Skills and processes in science education: an introduction. In skills and processes in science education. Ed: Jerry Wellington. Routledge: London.1/5.

Wrightstone, J. W. (1935). Measuring some major objectives of the Social Studies. The School Review, 43(10), 771-779.

Wu, S. H. And Alrabah, S. (2014). Tapping the potential of skill integration as a conduit for communicative language teaching.  English Language Teaching. 7(11), 119-129.

Yildirim, A. (1996). Teaching and learning in middle School Social Studies in Turkey: An analysis of curriculum implementation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12).