logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
indicator verbal linguistic intelligence reading subject transition period

Verbal Linguistic Intelligence of the First-Year Students of Indonesian Education Program: A Case in Reading Subject

Cahyo Hasanudin , Ayu Fitrianingsih

This study aimed to describe seven indicators of students’ verbal linguistic intelligence in reading subject. It used a qualitative research met.


This study aimed to describe seven indicators of students’ verbal linguistic intelligence in reading subject. It used a qualitative research method. The subjects of this study were 30 students consisted of 9 male and 21 female students. They took the reading subject in the second semester of the first year. They were given a test of verbal-linguistic intelligence. Seven students were selected to be interviewed because they have verbal-linguistic intelligence and good communication. To find out the validity of the data, the researchers used triangulation of the test results and the results of interviews and triangulation of the second researcher and research assistants. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using the content analysis method which consisted of three steps, they were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing/verification. The results of the study show that there were seven indicators of verbal-linguistic intelligence of students in reading subject, first, having excellent initial knowledge in mentioning words, second, enjoying wordplay with Scrabble, third, entertaining themselves and other students by playing tongue twisters, fourth, explaining the meaning of the words written and discussed, fifth, having difficulties in mathematics lesson, sixth, their conversation refers to something they have read and heard, and the last, having the ability to write poetry based on personal experience.

Keywords: Indicator, verbal-linguistic intelligence, reading subject, transition period.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Acharya, B. R. (2017). Factors affecting difficulties in learning mathematics by mathematics learners. International Journal of Elementary Education, 6(2), 8-15.

Acheson, D. J. & MacDonald, M. C. (2009). Twisting tongues and memories: explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 60(3), 329-350. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2008.12.002.

Adika, G. S. K., & Klu, E. (2014). Scientific diction, poetic intentions, and paths to literacy: An analysis of Lade Wosornu’s “Chemistry” and “the street”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 1024-1029. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p1024.

Akyol, H., & Boyaci-Altinay, Y. (2019). Reading difficulty and its remediation: A case study. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1269-1286. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1269

Akyuz, M. (2017). Adapting course book with tongue twisters in foreign language classes of 4th grades in Turkish primary schools in order to improve the speaking skills of students. The Journal of International Civilization Studies, 3(1), 387-403.

Alqahtani, M. (2015). The importance of vocabulary in language learning and how to be taught. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 3(3), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.20472/TE.2015.3.3.002.

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Baum, S., Viens J., & Slatin, B.. (2005) Multiple intelligence in the classroom: A teacher’s toolkit. New York, NY: Teacher College Press.

Cohen, A. D. (2003). The learner's side of foreign language learning; Where do styles, strategies, and tasks meet? International Research Applied Linguistic, 41(4), 279-291.

Conley, D. T. (2005). College knowledge: What it really takes for students to succeed and what we can do to get them ready. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. London, UK: Sage Publications, Inc.

Cummings, M. (2003). The role of theme and rheme in contrasting methods of organization of texts. In C. Butler (Ed.), Dynamics of language use: Functional and contrastive perspectives (129-154). Amsterdam, The Netherlands/ Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Denzin, N.K. (1970). The Research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

Dewi, C. (2012). Pengaruh tes formatif dan metode pembelajaran bahasa inggris terhadap kemampuan verbal linguistik [The influence of formative test and english learning method towards verbal linguistic intelligence]. Journal of Research and Education Evaluation/ Jurnal penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 16(1), 209-233.

Friedlander, L. J., Reid, G. J., Shupak, N., & Cribbie, R. (2007). Social support, self-esteem, and stress as predictors of adjustment to university among first-year undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development, 48(3), 256-275.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Gen, R. (2000). Technology and multiple intelligences: The praxis of learning intelligences. Education at a Distance, 14(4) 1-11.

Gilakjani, A. P. & Ahmadi, S. M. (2011). The relationship between L2 reading comprehension and schema theory: A matter of text familiarity. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), 142-149.

Gohar, M. J., & Sadeghi, N. (2015). Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory and foreign language achievement. International Journal of English and Education, 4(1), 206-216.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, L. F. (2001). Reading for academic purpose: Guidelines for the ESL/EFL teacher. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (187-203). Boston, ‎MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Hajhashemi, K., Caltabian, N., Anderson, N., & Tabibzadeh, S. A. (2018). Multiple intelligences, motivations and learning experience regarding video-assisted subjects in a rural university. International Journal of Instruction, 11(1), 167-182.

Hali, N. I. (2017). The actualization of literary learning model based on verbal-linguistic intelligence. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 5(4), 42-48.

Halil, N. I. (2017). The actualization literature based learning verbal-linguistic intelligence. Leksika, 11(1), 40-46.

Halliday, M. A. K. (2000). An introduction to functional grammar. Beijing, China: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Hebblethwaite. B. (2009). Scrabble as a tool for haitian creole literacy. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 24(2), 275-305.

Heinich, R., Molenda, M. Russel, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (2002). Instructional media & technologies for learning (7th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Hopper, B., & Hurry, P. (2000). Learning the mi way: The effects on students’ learning of using the theory of multiple intelligences. Pastoral Care, 18(4), 26-32.

Humble, A. M. 2009. Technique triangulation for validation in directed content analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(3), 34-51.

Javed, M., Juan, W. X., & Nazli S. (2013). A study of students’ assessment in writing skills of the English language. International Journal of Instruction, 6(2), 129-144.

Kobzeva, N. (2015). Scrabble as a tool for engineering students’ critical thinking skills development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 4th World Conference on Educational Technology Researches, WCETR-2014 (pp. 369-374)

Kosasih. E. (2012). Dasar-dasar keterampilan bersastra [the foundations of literature skills]. Bandung, Indonesia: CV Yrama Widya.

Lang, H. R., & dan Evans, D. N. (2006). Model, strategies, and methods for effective teaching. Boston: Person Education Inc.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Manik, S., & Christiani M. (2016). Aching vocabulary using matching word on computer assisted, Language Learning. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 4(7), 1-26.

Manullang, M. (2016). Pengaruh penguasaan numerik dan penguasaan verbal terhadap prestasi belajar matematika [The Influence of Numerical and Verbal Mastering towards Mathematics Learning Achievement]. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307645570_Pengaruh_Penguasaan_Numerik_dan_Penguasaan_Verbal_terhadap_Prestasi_Belajar_Matematika

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (2007). Analisis data kualitatif: Buku sumber tentang metode-metode baru [Qualitative Data Analysis: Book Source about New Methods]. Terjemahan Tjetjep Rohendi Rohidi [Translated by Tjetjep Rohendi Rohidi]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Universitas Indonesia Press.

Noval, K. H. (2011). Syntactic aspects of poetry: A pragmatic perspective. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(16), 47-63.

Nurgiyantoro, B. (2013). Teori pengkajian fiksi [The theory of science study]. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Pan, D. (2004). The effective student, a guide to learning for the NUS student. Singapore, Republic of Singapore: Continental Press Pte Ltd.

Parsa, M., Jahandar, S., & Khodabandehlou, M. (2013). The effect of verbal intelligence on knowledge of lexicon. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 2(2), 114-121.

Pursun, T., & Efilti, E. (2019). The analysing of the emotional intelligence scores of the special education teacher candidates for the predictor of multiple intelligences areas. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 409-420. doi: 10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.409

Razmjoo, S. A., & Jozaghi, Z. (2010). The representation of multiple intelligences types in the top-notch series: A textbook evaluation. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 14(2), 59-84.

Retnowati, R., Suharyati, H., Manurung, R. T., Maknun, D., Armariena, D. N., Hetilaniar, H., … Setyorini, R. (2018). The effect of environmental teaching method and the level of natural intelligence on the environmental view of the students behavior. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114(1): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/17426596/1114/1/012104

Robihim. (2008). Analisis metode belajar kosa kata [Analysis of learning vocabulary method]. Lingua Cultura, 2(2), 188-203.

Robson, S. (2006). Developing thinking and understanding in young children. New York, NY: Routledge.

Saddhono, K., Hasanudin, C., & Fitrianingsih, A. (2019). The ability to think creatively on SSCS using schoology Apps, How is the student’s language metacognitive awareness?. Ingenierie Des Systemes d’Information, 24(4): 367–375. https://doi.org/10.18280/isi.240402

Saito, S., & Baddeley, A. D. (2004). Irrelevant sound disrupts speech production: Exploring the relationship between short-term memory and experimentally induced slips of the tongue. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 57(7), 1309–1340.

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Educational psychology (5th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Somadoyo, S. (2011). Strategi dan teknik pembelajaran membaca [Strategies and Techniques of Learning Reading]. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Graha Ilmu.

Susanto, A. (2011). Perkembangan anak usia dini [Early Chilhood Development]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Susanto, A. (2015). Teori belajar & pembelajaran di sekolah dasar [Theory of teaching and learning in primary school]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Prenadamedia.

Tambychik, T., & Meerah, T. S. M. (2010). Sudents’ difficulties in mathematics problem-solving: what do they say? Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8(5), 142-151. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.020

Tarigan, H. G. (2008). Membaca sebagai suatu keterampilan berbahasa [Reading as a speaking skill]. Bandung, Indonesia: Angkasa Bandung.

Tientje, N. N. (2010). Multiple intelligensi pendidikan usia dini [Multiple Intelligence of the Young Learners Education]. Bogor, Indonesia: Rekatama.

Uzun, Levent. (2009). An evaluative checklist for computer games used for foreign language vocabulary learning and practice: Vocaword Sample. Novitas-ROYAL Reseacrh on Youth and Language, 3(1), 45-59.

Vas, G. (2007). Grammar matters tongue twisters. New Delhi, India: Sterling Paperbacks.

Wells-Smith Partners (2012). The benefits of tongue twisters in speech therapy. Retriaved from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/blogs/admin/tongue-twisters-1.

Widoyoko, S. E. P. (2012). Teknik penyusunan instrumen penelitian [Techniques of arranging research instrument]. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Pustaka Belajar.

Windura, S. (2008). Brain management series. Jakarta, Indonesia: PT Elex Media Komputindo

Yalmanci, G. & Gozum, A. I. C. (2013) The effects of multiple intelligence theory based teaching on students’ achievement and retention of knowledge (Example of the enzymes subject). International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 4(3), 27-36.

Yin, Robert K. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Yunus, S. (2015). Kompetensi menulis kreatif [Creative Writing Competence]. Bogor, Indonesia: Ghalia Indonesia.

Zan, R., & Martino, P. (2008). Attitude toward mathematics: overcoming the positive/negative dichotomy. In B. Sriraman (Ed.), The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast: Monograph Series in Mathematics Education (pp. 197–214). Charlotte, NC: The Montana Council of Teachers of Mathematics.