logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Headquarters
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

'person-environment fit' Search Results



Student Centered Education Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

student centered education student centered education scale validity reliability

Zeynep Boyaci , Seyma Sahin , Hayriye Merve Eris Hasirci , Abdurrahman Kilic


...

The purpose of the study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure the teachers’ levels of student-centered education practices. The Exploratory Factor Analysis sample included a total of 426 teachers and the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the scale was conducted on a total of 160 teachers working in the province of Duzce during the spring term of 2014-2015 education year. Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the scale and the model was tested through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. For the reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha internal coefficient was calculated and item analysis was performed based on the corrected item total correlation. The final form of the scale included 32 items and one dimension. These 32 items explained 40.04% of the total variance. The results of the item total correlation analysis indicated that none of the item was below 0.30 and the lowest item correlation coefficient was 0.51. Cronbach’s Alpha was found to be 0.95 for the internal consistency of the scale. The reliability and validity results for the Student-Centered Education Scale suggest that this scale is a reliable and valid tool to measure the levels of student-centered educational practices among teachers.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.93
Pages: 93-103
cloud_download 1070
visibility 1480
2
Article Metrics
Views
1070
Download
1480
Citations
Crossref
2

...

Among school psycho-social factors with considerable effect on student outcomes are both school and classroom climate.  Because how students perceive the classroom climate strongly predicts achievement, measuring classroom climate gains importance and the need for testing the existing results across cultures persists.  In this study, we assessed the validity and measurement invariance of the Turkish adaptation of the Student Personal Perception of Classroom Climate Scale (SPPCC) developed in English (US).  Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and measurement invariance (MI) analyses by sex were performed on 629 students’ data.  CFA results confirmed the factorial structure of the SPPCC.  Results of the MI analyses showed that the SPPCC measures the same construct for females and males in a non-English context.  Latent mean comparisons revealed girls perceived the classroom climate more positively than boys.  We concluded that this study in the Turkish context is a further step in developing evidence of the extent to which SPCC provides psychometrically sound scores.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.113
Pages: 113-120
cloud_download 872
visibility 1247
3
Article Metrics
Views
872
Download
1247
Citations
Crossref
3

...

This study aims to analyze whether academics’ organizational cynicism attitudes and levels of organizational identification in the field of sports sciences differ based on certain variables and determine if any relationship exists between these two variables. “Organizational Cynicism Scale” and “Academics’ Organizational Cynicism Scale” were applied to 106 academics as a data collection tool. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for nonparametric statistical data analysis. Bonferroni correction was taken into account in order to identify different groups. Spearman order correlation coefficient was calculated in order to identify the correlations among variables. The findings suggest that academics’ organizational cynicism and identification sub-dimensions did not display significant differences in terms of gender, marital status and academic title. However, significant differences were found among some sub-dimensions in terms of sufficiency of institution’s physical facilities, the status of place where the institution is located and financial aid from the institution. Additionally, negative and moderately significant correlations were found between all sub-dimensions of organization cynicism attitude and cognitive/behavioral/affective organizational identification sub-dimensions. It is considered that the present study will make important contributions to educational psychology thanks to its findings.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.349
Pages: 349-360
cloud_download 389
visibility 757
0
Article Metrics
Views
389
Download
757
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
1

...

Teachers’ use of everyday cognitive heuristics can lead to biases in information processing and, thus, to unfair assessments of student characteristics. This problem can be addressed by a core aspect of research-based learning, i.e., by making use of principles and methods of empirical research in order to systematically collect information. However, pre-service teachers’ attitude towards the use of empirical research methods is usually rather low. To foster their attitudes, a total of 444 student teachers were confronted with their own biased perception during a methodology course. Biased perception was triggered by a halo effect inducing experiment. In a subsequent semester, n = 113 of these students participated in an online survey. They answered questions about their cognitive activity and affective reaction following the presentation of the results of the experiment. Moreover, they reported about perceived attitude changes towards systematic thinking and research methods. The results demonstrate the successful implementation of the halo effect, which affected the students cognitively and emotionally. Structural equation modelling showed, that attitude change was dependent on both cognitive and affective reactions. The findings indicate that the halo effect is not only easy to implement in university courses but also appears to have substantial impact on students’ attitudes towards research-based learning.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.433
Pages: 433-441
cloud_download 1458
visibility 1427
2
Article Metrics
Views
1458
Download
1427
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

This descriptive and regression research was conducted to determine the influence of empowerment on organizational behaviors of 215 teachers in Catholic Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. The results revealed that Catholic teachers have high levels of teacher empowerment. Specifically, they have very high level of status, professional growth, self-efficacy, and impact and high level of decision-making and autonomy in scheduling. Meanwhile, they also high level of organizational behaviors. Furthermore, three of the subscales of teacher empowerment tend to predict almost all dimensions of organizational behaviors of teachers in the school. The research concludes that Catholic Higher Education teachers are empowered to their organization as they feel respected, have opportunities for professional growth, feel efficient and effective in the classroom, and have the capacity to influence students and the school life. However, they do not have enough avenues to be involved in the decision-making process of their institution and do not have enough freedom and opportunities to choose their own schedules and teaching loads. Furthermore, they exhibit positive organizational behaviors in their institutions as manifested in their strong attachment to their organization, high level of involvement to their work, harmonious relationship with their supervisors and middle level managers. Also, they exhibit discretionary actions that goes beyond their functions, and have a desire and passion to continue and uphold the teaching profession.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617
Pages: 617-631
cloud_download 1545
visibility 1609
25
Article Metrics
Views
1545
Download
1609
Citations
Crossref
25

Scopus
19

...

The study aims to promote relevant and effective environmental education (EE) through extracurricular clubs. For this, we studied the state of play of environmental activities (EA) carried out by 48 environmental clubs belonging to urban and rural areas of the Regional Academy of Education Fez-Meknes, Morocco. These extracurricular environmental clubs remain so far without formal environmental education programs. In this study, we identified the bulk of programs offered by extracurricular environment clubs, including types of scheduled activities and percentages of achievement and student beneficiaries in urban and rural settings. In addition, we have identified the main barriers to achieving certain environmental activities. The significant correlations detected between some of the variables studied allowed us to better explain the achievements and the weaknesses of these clubs. Finally, we have made recommendations to promote relevant and effective extracurricular environmental education.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1013
Pages: 1013-1028
cloud_download 1182
visibility 1006
14
Article Metrics
Views
1182
Download
1006
Citations
Crossref
14

Scopus
16

...

This research aims to find out: (1) the more effective learning model on students' divergent-thinking skills; (2) the better adversity quotient on students' divergent-thinking skills; (3) the better adversity quotient to improve students' divergent-thinking skills in each learning model; and (4) the better learning model to improve students' divergent-thinking skills in each adversity quotient. This research uses a quantitative approach with a quasi-experimental type. The fifth-grade students were selected as the research subjects. This research was carried out at the public elementary schools in Laweyan District, Surakarta, Indonesia. Test and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data. The data analysis was performed with the analysis prerequisite, hypothesis, and multiple-comparison tests. The results showed that the learning model and adversity quotient have an influence on divergent-thinking skills; for each adversity quotient, the thinking actively in a social context learning model is better than the creative problem solving and direct instruction learning model; the creative problem solving learning model is better than the direct instruction learning model; and adversity quotient of the climbers is better than that of the campers and the adversity quotient of the campers is better than that of the quitters in each learning model.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.537
Pages: 537-568
cloud_download 996
visibility 1553
10
Article Metrics
Views
996
Download
1553
Citations
Crossref
10

Scopus
14

...

This study aims to test proving the scale of measuring the character of students' curiosity using confirmatory factor analysis. This study uses a quantitative approach. The sample used was 325 randomly selected participants. The variable examined in this study is the character of curiosity. The curiosity variable is focused on elementary school students. In this study, this variable was measured by four indicators and 16 measuring items. The four indicators include: paying attention, taking notes, asking questions, and comparing. Data collection was carried out by distributing curiosity questionnaires to participants. The data analysis technique used was confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability analysis used was the composite score reliability analysis. The results of the study concluded that the constituent indicators of the latent variables of students' curiosity show that all loading factor values have a significant effect on the latent variables in the first order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Meanwhile, in the second order CFA, the variable of curiosity, the biggest contribution was the indicators compare. This student curiosity assessment model has fulfilled the goodness of fit aspect of the model and has been reliable based on construct reliability. This study recommends a scale measuring elementary school students' curiosity.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.773
Pages: 773-783
cloud_download 1938
visibility 1595
11
Article Metrics
Views
1938
Download
1595
Citations
Crossref
11

Scopus
23

...

Shortly after the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic began, studies on the challenges faced by tertiary students during Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) became available. However, the data sets were harvested early, as many countries began implementing ERT in response to the pandemic in March 2020. Many recent studies have failed to distinguish between the challenges faced by students enrolled in the laboratory and non-laboratory courses. There is still a dearth of literature on the difficulties encountered by students enrolled in non-laboratory courses following the first year of ERT implementation. The purpose of this paper was to examine the various challenges faced by tertiary students enrolled in non-laboratory courses following the conclusion of the first year of ERT implementation. Contextualized in two state-owned higher education institutions in northern Luzon, this study employed a fundamental qualitative approach, with focus group discussions (FGDs) serving as the primary data collection technique. Five major themes emerged from the FGDs with 42 purposively selected tertiary students. These themes presented in the spider web illustration include (1) student-focused challenges, (2) instructional material-related challenges, (3) instructor-emanating challenges, (4) technology-related challenges, and (5) student support-related challenges. This article concludes that these issues must be dealt with immediately to facilitate the implementation of ERT in non-laboratory courses. These difficulties may also be dimensions of concerns about distance education, particularly in non-urban areas of the Philippines. The themes also provide some actual pictures of the student challenges in the initial year of ERT in college. This paper highlighted some implications for pedagogy and educational management, as well as future research directions.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.481
Pages: 481-492
cloud_download 946
visibility 1064
2
Article Metrics
Views
946
Download
1064
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

Validating Student’s Green Character Instrument Using Factor and Rasch Model

green character instrument factor and rasch analysis

Akhmad Sukri , Muhammad Arief Rizka , Elly Purwanti , Siti Ramdiah , Marheny Lukitasari


...

Many researchers have separately developed instruments to measure environmental characteristics such as attitudes, values, and knowledge. However, there is no instrument used to measure all these aspects in one comprehensive instrument. This study is meant to develop and validate a green character instrument which reveals student behavior and awareness of the environment. The instrument consists of 40 statement items consisting of 5 aspects, namely private pro-environmental behavior, public pro-environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, and environmental attitudes. It was implemented on 1,398 students from 15 universities in Indonesia. The instrument content validation was analyzed by three experts using content validity index (CVI). The construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and RASCH analysis. The content validity results obtained CVI scores ranging between 0.8 and 0.9 with a good category, while item reliability was in a fairly good category with a high level of separation index. Construct validation resulted in 34 items (4 items were eliminated after Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and 2 items were eliminated after RASCH analysis) spread over five constructs, namely environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, environmental attitudes, and environmental habits. The resulting instrument has a good level of item difficulty, with a well understood response set which can be understood easily by respondents, and without bias. Therefore, it can be used to measure the students’ green character on both male and female.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.859
Pages: 859-872
cloud_download 532
visibility 696
2
Article Metrics
Views
532
Download
696
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

Recently, researchers have paid more attention to the aspects of classroom learning environments because of their effects on students’ cognitive and effective outcomes. However, current literature reveals the lack of research that explores the factors of classroom environments in Vietnamese context. The present study, therefore, aims to validate the psychometric properties of the 25-items version of the My Class Inventory (MCI), translated into Vietnamese for 487 secondary school students. Factorial analysis showed an acceptable fit for the four-factors structure of the MCI – cohesiveness, competitiveness, satisfaction, and friction – to be appropriate for secondary school students. Internal consistency reliabilities of the general scales and four subscales were satisfactory. Results support the suitability of the MCI to assess students’ classroom environment within Vietnam’s educational context. The study recommended, among other things, that future studies should be conducted to explore the validity of the MCI on other samples of Vietnamese secondary students.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1037
Pages: 1037-1045
cloud_download 384
visibility 610
0
Article Metrics
Views
384
Download
610
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

...

The government has imposed social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting the education sector, including the early childhood school. Distance education offers different methods from the conventional methods, as the students are expected to gain the same skills, including critical thinking skills. Therefore, teachers must provide distance learning innovations using relevant learning media, such as multimedia-based learning. This research aims to assess the efficacy of multimedia learning in early childhood distance learning. This research is a quantitative model with a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design. The data collection technique utilized questionnaires given to 30 samples of early childhood children. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. The results confirmed that multimedia-based learning for distance learning could develop critical thinking skills in early childhood children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study offer exploration of learning strategies to improve children’s critical thinking.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1555
Pages: 1553-1568
cloud_download 1258
visibility 948
3
Article Metrics
Views
1258
Download
948
Citations
Crossref
3

Scopus
3

...

The research aimed to examine students' attitudes towards learning and teaching processes in an online course, investigating whether there was a difference between Jewish and Arab students' attitudes towards this course. The study combined mixed methods. Data were drawn from a questionnaire (including mostly closed-ended questions) completed by 195 graduate students and eight semi- structured interviews. Additionally, the students' grades for their course assignments were analyzed. Findings indicated that all course participants perceived the teaching and learning processes positively, but Jewish students held stronger positive attitudes concerning the learning processes' effectiveness than did Arab students. Jewish course participants' achievements were higher than those of Arab participants. The variable `sector` had a moderating effect on perceptions of the course structure's clarity and success in the course, strong clarity led to Arab students' success on the course but not for Jewish students. Arab students shared their difficulty adapting to a learning style necessitating autonomous learning processes. These findings are explained by Arab society's unique cultural dimensions, characterised by high-power distance and strong avoidance of uncertainty. The findings can inform designers of multicultural online courses that optimal teaching practices necessitate culture sensitivity, and this constitutes an issue for future studies.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1581
Pages: 1581-1594
cloud_download 360
visibility 612
2
Article Metrics
Views
360
Download
612
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

The primary objective of this study is to require the experts’ unanimous agreement on the e-learning antecedents and usage behavior towards e-learning performance. This study used the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to gather answers and feedback using a 7-point Likert scale. The survey (items) was reviewed and approved by eight panel members or experts. It was analyzed using Fuzzy Delphi Logic (FUDELO 1.0) software. The data were evaluated using triangular fuzzy numbering and the position (ranking) of each variable was established through defuzzification. The findings revealed that all of the items received high levels of expert agreement, significantly greater α-cut defuzzification values >.5, the overall value of the threshold (d) is less than .2 and had to comply with the overall percentage of percent consensus, which must be greater than 75%. All 45 recommended items were retained adequately and acceptable for a large-scale survey in this study. Finally, each item was prioritized (ranked) based on the defuzzification value, and then some additional items were added, as recommended by experts.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.467
Pages: 467-480
cloud_download 220
visibility 381
0
Article Metrics
Views
220
Download
381
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
1

...

This article examines the influence of the university environment and learning programs on students' entrepreneurial intentions and attitudes, considering the moderating roles of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and locus of control. The empirical analysis employs a multilevel (hierarchical) linear model, utilizing responses from 713 students across 30 universities in Kazakhstan who participated in the GUESSS 2021 project survey. Our findings reveal that students' entrepreneurial intentions are directly influenced by entrepreneurial self-efficacy and locus of control. However, the locus of control is also indirectly influenced by the university environment and learning program. The learning program's effect on both entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes is mediated by self-efficacy. Locus of control, conversely, negatively affects both entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions in program learning. The study's results underscore that student entrepreneurship is shaped by personal factors such as self-efficacy and locus of control, alongside the university context. Interestingly, the findings also indicate interdependencies between these factors, further influencing students' entrepreneurial intentions and attitudes.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.3.1539
Pages: 1539-1554
cloud_download 603
visibility 923
2
Article Metrics
Views
603
Download
923
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

Creativity and information literacy are skills necessary for students for task completion in the learning process. One of the tasks assigned to students in learning is to write drafts of scientific articles. Furthermore, teachers must pay attention to cognitive styles in the learning process. This study aimed to describe students' creativity in writing drafts of scientific papers based on information literacy concerning reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. This research was exploratory qualitative research to explain the creativity of reflective and impulsive students in writing scientific article drafts based on information literacy. The research subjects comprised two students for each reflective and impulsive cognitive style. The cognitive style was measured using the Matching Familiar Figure Test instrument. Students' creativity was measured using a test with fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration indicators. The results indicated that reflective students were highly creative in writing drafts of scientific articles. Meanwhile, impulsive students were relatively creative in the same activity. In conclusion, students possessing the reflective cognitive style are more creative than students following the impulsive cognitive style in writing drafts of scientific articles based on information literacy. We recommend that writing articles based on information literacy is required to increase HOTs (Higher Order Thinking Skills).

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1667
Pages: 1667-1681
cloud_download 402
visibility 626
0
Article Metrics
Views
402
Download
626
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

...

Institutions of higher education generally employ both lecture-based and project-based approaches to instruction. This study aims to investigate which aspects of lectures and project-based instructional environments contribute to “deep” and “surface” approaches to student learning. We collected and compared survey data from undergraduate students taking a civil engineering course in which they were assigned to a section taught with lecture-based instruction (n = 181) or with project-based instruction (n = 142). Data analysis was performed after controlling for the effects of the motivational goal orientations of students. A positive correlation can be found between deep learning and higher levels of investigative culture and student involvement in the project-based classroom. Additionally, we found that higher levels of task orientation in the project-based classroom had an inverse correlation with a “surface approach”. We discussed the value of an investigative and participatory learning atmosphere for student approach to learning and its curricular implications for the design of project-based and lecture-based instruction.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.13.2.531
Pages: 531-539
cloud_download 215
visibility 397
2
Article Metrics
Views
215
Download
397
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: A Bibliometric Approach

artificial intelligence bibliometric analysis higher education scopus vosviewer

K. Kavitha , V. P. Joshith , Neethu P Rajeev , Asha S


...

The world eagerly anticipates advancements in AI technologies, with substantial ongoing research on the potential AI applications in the domain of education. The study aims to analyse publications about the possibilities of artificial intelligence (AI) within higher education, emphasising their bibliometric properties. The data was collected from the Scopus database, uncovering 775 publications on the subject of study from 2000 to 2022, using various keywords. Upon analysis, it was found that the frequency of publications in the study area has risen from 3 in 2000 to 314 in 2022. China and the United States emerged as the most influential countries regarding publications in this area. The findings revealed that “Education and Information Technologies” and the “International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning” were the most frequently published journals. “S. Slade” and “P. Prinsloo” received the most citations, making them highly effective researchers. The co-authorship network primarily comprised the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and China. The emerging themes included machine learning, convolutional neural networks, curriculum, and higher education systems are co-occurred with AI. The continuous expansion of potential AI technologies in higher education calls for increased global collaboration based on shared democratic principles, reaping mutual advantages.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1121
Pages: 1121-1137
cloud_download 313
visibility 1474
0
Article Metrics
Views
313
Download
1474
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

A Comprehensive Systematic Review on the Multifaceted Factors Influencing Teacher Flourishing

flourishing teacher mental health systematic literature review well-being

Florence Yulisinta , Bernadette Narulina Setiadi , Eunike Sri Tyas Suci


...

<p style="text-align:justify">Teacher flourishing encompasses a broad range of well-being, encompassing hedonic (pleasure-based) and eudaimonic (meaning-based) satisfactions. In the context of the literature review, a concise overview is provided, consisting of definitions, predictors, mediators, and outcomes. Conforming to the PRISMA protocol, the present review progresses through four stages: identification, screening, eligibility assessment, and including relevant studies. Furthermore, the search strategy focused on flourishing, well-being, and measuring tools, leveraging databases such as EBSCO Host, Proquest, Science Direct, and DOAJ. In line with the PRISMA statement, systematic review methodology guides the final analysis, incorporating twenty-seven studies published between 2017 and 2023. Despite being studied in numerous theoretical frameworks, teacher flourishing needs a more widely accepted definition and operational framework in studying the concept. The results show that multiple factors impact teacher flourishing, including individual, relational, and organizational elements. Additionally, the evaluation considers direct and indirect predictors, mediators, and outcomes. The new model is related to global well-being, including emotional, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects, stating the connections of these elements. The implications of the results can be effectively applied within educational settings by teachers, policymakers, and scholars specializing in education.</p>

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1335
Pages: 1335-1351
cloud_download 118
visibility 344
0
Article Metrics
Views
118
Download
344
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

...

Students’ mastery goal orientation tends to decline over the course of compulsory school, especially after the transition to lower secondary school. According to stage-environment fit theory, secondary school is less accommodating to students' needs, interests, and abilities than primary school. In consequence, the perceived person-environment fit declines as well. It is assumed that a strong sense of classroom community in primary school can counteract a potential decline in both of these important individual aspects. Using data from the Swiss longitudinal research project WiSel (“Wirkungen der Selektion”; “Effects of Tracking”), we conducted a latent growth curve model (LGCM) to examine the correlation between the development of students' mastery goal orientation and the development of their person-environment fit during the transition from primary school to lower secondary school. Perceived classroom community was assumed to benefit from these developments. The results show that both mastery goal orientation and person-environment fit decrease during the transition to lower secondary school. A strong sense of classroom community in fifth grade leads to a smaller decline in both constructs. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1493
Pages: 1493-1506
cloud_download 90
visibility 378
0
Article Metrics
Views
90
Download
378
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

...