Development and Standardization of Instrument for Measuring Integration of University Students into University Academic Culture

Nkechi Patricia-Mary Esomonu, Okeaba James Uzoma

APA 6th edition
Esomonu, N.P., & Uzoma, O.J. (2016). Development and Standardization of Instrument for Measuring Integration of University Students into University Academic Culture. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(4), 201-212. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.4.201

Esomonu N.P., and Uzoma O.J. 2016 'Development and Standardization of Instrument for Measuring Integration of University Students into University Academic Culture', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 201-212. Available from:

Chicago 16th edition
Esomonu, Nkechi Patricia-Mary and Uzoma, Okeaba James . "Development and Standardization of Instrument for Measuring Integration of University Students into University Academic Culture". (2016)European Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 4(2016): 201-212. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.5.4.201


The study developed and standardized an Inventory for measuring Students’ Integration into University Academic Culture named Inventory for Students’ Integration into University Academic Culture (ISIUAC). The increase in dropout rates, substance use, cultism and other deviant behaviours in Nigerian universities makes it necessary for one to ask the extent to which university students are integrated into the university academic culture. This necessitates the development of standardized instrument for the assessment of students’ integration into university academic culture. The Study employed an instrumentation design in which a five point scale inventory were developed and standardized. An initial draft of 60 item instrument was developed and standardized. After corrections a 58 item instrument emerged and was administered to 500 University students. The data collected were subjected to factor analysis. The result from factor analysis showed that 27 items loaded well on three factors with minimum loading of 035.  The 27 items were administered to 1,000 students to establish norms. The norm for the entire instrument was 105.19, the norms of male and female students were 100.96 and 109.21 respectively.  Cronbach alpha statistics was used to establish the reliability of the instrument, its result shows an internal consistency of 0.926 for the 27 items. Hypotheses were tested using t-test statistics; the result shows that there is a significant difference between the norms of male and female students. The manual of the ISIUAC shows the administration and scoring procedure of the inventory and its psychometric properties. The instrument ISIUAC is recommended therefore for assessing students’ integration into the university academic culture.

Keywords: instrumentation, academic culture, students integration, inventory, standardization.


Ali, A. (1996). Fundamental of research in education.Awka: Meks. Unique publisher’s ltd.

Azelama, J., Aluede O, Andlmhonde H (2005). Peer Victimization incampus secret cults: Response from Nigerian university undergraduates.    Accessed    21st   February,    20011   from JHE-18-0-000-000-2005-Web/JHE-18-l-000-00-2005-Abst-PDF/JHE-8-1-057-061-2005-1279-Azelama-J/JHE-18-l-057-061-2005-1279-Azelama-J-Full-Text.pdf.

Deal T.E & Kennedy A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life.Harmonds Worth: Reguin Books.

Dill, (1982).The management of academic culture: Notes on the management of meaning and social integration. Elsevier scientific publishing company, Amsterdam printed in the Netherlands.

Deuga D. I., & Deuga, D. (2004). Sexual harassment: A students' view from a Nigerian university. The African Symposium (4) 1, Retrieved on 22nd May, 2011 from http://www.ncsu.edU/ aern/TAS4.l/TAS4.l.pdf.

Ezebube C. (2006). Inter-cultism Violence in Nigerian school Sun     Online. Sunday (April 30). Retrieved on 22nd May, 2007 from webpages /features/Sunday20M@ilbox/2006/apr/30/mailbox-30-04-2006-003.htm.

Finn, J. (1999). Withdrawing from school.Review of educational research 59 (2)

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003).Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148-162.

Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents; Scale development and educational correlates.Psychology in schools 30.

Hake, R. (1998). Interactive engagement vs. traditional engagement: A six thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses: American Journal of physics 66(1)

Jones, R. D. (2009). Student engagement: Creating a culture of academic achievement.International Center for Leadership in education. New York.

Kovalik, S. J.(2007). Gender differences and student engagement retrieved 12/03/12 from html.

McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004).School connectedness and the transition into and out of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher Support. Journal of School Health 74 (7).

Meredith, G. M. (1969). Dimensions of faculty course evaluationsJournal of Psychology, 73

Ogoamaka, P.M.C. (1999). Development and preliminary validation of student’s evaluation of teacher’s effectiveness scale (SETES)"   unpublished   M. ed   thesis.   University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Olujuwon, T. (1999).Education in Nigeria: A futuristic perspective. Retrieved on 22nd May, 2007 from www.osds,

Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70, 323-367.

Rotimi, A. (2005). Violence in the Citadel: The menace of Secret Cults in the Nigeria Universities. Nordic J. African Studies 1(1).

Saint, W., Hartnett, T.A., & Strasser, E. (2003).Higher Education in Nigeria: A Status Report.Higher Education Policy, 16.

Sax, L. (2006).Why gender matters: What parents and Teachers Need to know about the origin of Sex differences.Retrieved 12/03/12 Fromwww.whygender

Wallace, A., & Schirato, T. (1999).Beginning university: Thinking, researching and writing for success, Sydney, Athen and Unwin.