logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
academic achievements goal orientations critical thinking self regulation skill prospective preschool teacher discriminant analysis

Prospective Preschool Teachers’ Academic Achievements Depending on Their Goal Orientations, Critical Thinking Dispositions and Self-Regulation Skills

Rabia Ozen Uyar , Melek Merve Yilmaz Genc , Mustafa Yasar

The aim of this study is to explain and predict prospective preschool teachers’ academic achievements depending on goal orientations they adopt,.


The aim of this study is to explain and predict prospective preschool teachers’ academic achievements depending on goal orientations they adopt, their critical thinking dispositions and self-regulation skills. Research sample constitutes of 265 prospective preschool teachers attending the Faculty of Educational Sciences in Cukurova University. Research data were collected with the 2x2Achievement Goal Orientations Scale, Self-Regulation Questionnaire and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Demographical information about prospective teachers’ gender, age, grade level and academic grade point averages were obtained with the personal information form. For the analysis of research data, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and discriminant analysis were used. In this study; it was concluded that prospective teachers with high level of learning approach orientation, critical thinking disposition and self-regulation skills had higher levels of academic achievement. However, it was determined that distinguishing variables among prospective preschool teachers with low, medium and high level of academic achievement included learning approach, performance approach goal orientation and critical thinking disposition and self-regulation skills. Correct classification percentage of distinguishing variables according to prospective preschool teachers’ levels of academic achievement was determined as 48.8%. Considering the fact that prospective teachers’ achievement-goal orientations, critical thinking dispositions and self-regulation skills may increase their academic achievement and shape their future teaching performances, it is suggested to implement programs that will contribute to the development of such skills and orientations among prospective preschool teachers.

Keywords: Academic achievements, goal orientations, critical thinking, self-regulation skill, prospective preschool teacher, discriminant analysis

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Adams, M. H., Stover, L. M., & Whitlow, J. F. (1999). A longitudinal evaluation of baccalaureate nursing students' critical thinking abilities. Journal of Nursing Education, 38(3), 139-141.

Akawi, R. L. (2011). An investigation into the relationship between self-regulation skills and academic readiness in Head Start children (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University at Albany, Albany, NY.

Akbiyik, C., & Seferoglu, S. S. (2002). Elestirel dusunme egilimleri ve akademik basari. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 3(32), 90-99.

Akin, A., & Arslan, S. (2014). The relationships between achievement goal orientations and grit. Education and Science, 39(175), 267-274.

Akin, A. (2006). 2x2 basari yonelimleri olçegi: Gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [2x2 achievement goal orientations scale: The study of validity and reliability]. Sakarya University Journal of Education Faculty, 12, 1-13.

American Philosophical Association (APA). (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Retrieved May 28, 2017 from https://assessment.trinity.duke.edu/documents/Delphi_Report.pdf.

Ames, C. (1992a). Achievement goals and the classroom motivational climate. In D. H. Schunk & J. L. Meece (Eds.), Student perceptions in the classroom (p. 327-348). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ames, C. (1992b). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271.

Anderman, E. M., & Young, A. J. (1994). Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(8), 811-831.

Aydin, S., Gurbuzoglu Yalman, S., & Yel, M. (2014). Fen bilgisi ogretmen adaylarinin basari amac yonelimlerinin cesitli degiskenler acisindan incelenmesi [A study of prospective science teachers’ achievement goal orientations in reference to certain variables]. e-Kafkas Journal of Educational Research, 1(1), 51-59.

Aydin, S., Keskin, M. O., & Yel, M. (2015). Oz-duzenleme olceginin Turkce uyarlaması: Gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [Turkish adaptation of the self-regulation questionnaire: a study on validity and reliability]. Turkish Journal of Education, 3(1), 24-33.

Beck, H. P., Rorrer-Woody, S., Pierce, L. G. (1991). The relations of learning and grade orientations to academic performance. Teaching of Psychology, 18(1), 35-37.

Black, S. (2005). Teaching students to think critically. The Education Digest, 70(6), 42-47.

Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2005). High quality preschool programs: What would Vygotsky say? Early Education and Development, 16(4), 435-444.

Bohlin, H. (2009). Perspective-dependence and critical thinking. Argumentation, 23(2), 189-203.

Bondurant, L. M. (2010). The roots of academic underachievement: Prediction from early difficulties with self-regulation (Unpublished doctoral thesis). The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX.

Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., & Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation on self‐regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(3), 317-329.

Brown, J. M., Miller, W. R., & Lawendowski, L. A. (1999). The self-regulation questionnaire. In L. VandeCreek & T. L. Jackson (Eds.). Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, (p. 281-292). Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press.

Bulus, M. (2011). Goal orientations, locus of control and academic achievement in prospective teachers: an individual differences perspective. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 11(2), 540-546.

Buyukozturk, S. (2002). Sosyal bilimler icin veri analizi el kitabi (16th ed.). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Buyukozturk, S., Kilic - Cakmak, E., Akgun, O. E., Karadeniz, S., & Demirel. F. (2014). Bilimsel arastirma yontemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Buyuktanir, A. (2014). Okul oncesi ogretmen adaylarinin fen egitimine yonelik oz yeterlikleri basari amac oryantasyonlari ve ogrenme yaklasimlari arasındaki iliskinin incelenmesi [An investigation on the relationship between pre-school pre-service teachers' self-efficacy of science teaching, achievement goal orientations and learning approaches] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Gazi University, Ankara.  

Chan, D. W. (2008). Goal orientations and achievement among Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. High Ability Studies, 19(1), 37-51.

Cokluk, O., Sekercioglu, G., & Buyukozturk, S. (2012). Sosyal bilimler icin cok degiskenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamalar [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]i. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Council of Higher Education (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2017 from http://www.yok.gov.tr/documents/10279/31737/4_luk_sistem_100/.

Dawson, T. L. (2008). Metacognition and learning in adulthood. Retrieved May 26, 2017 from https://dts.lectica.org/PDF/Metacognition.pdf.

Demir, H. K., Dereboy, F., & Dereboy, C. (2009). Genclerde kimlik bocalamasi ve psikopatoloji [Identify confusion and psychopathology in late adolescence]. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 20(3), 227-235.

Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.

Dweck, C. S. (1985). Intrinsic motivation, perceived control, and self-evaluation maintenance: An achievement goal analysis. Research on Motivation in Education: The Classroom Milieu, 2, 289-305.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bernzweig, J., Karbon, M., Poulin, R., & Hanish, L. (1993). The relations of emotionality and regulation to preschoolers' social skills and sociometric status. Child Development, 64(5), 1418-1438.

Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2×2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501-519.

Elliott, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 171-185.

Facione, P. A. (2000). The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relationship to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61-84.

Gadzella, B. M., Baloglu, M., & Stephens, R. (2002). Prediction of GPA with educational psychology grades and critical thinking scores. Education, 122(3), 618-623.

Garett, K., & Wulf, K. (1978). The relationship of a measure of critical thinking ability to personality variables and to indicators of academic achievement. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38(4), 1181-1187.

Gehlbach, H. (2006). How changes in students' goal orientations relate to outcomes in social studies. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 358-370.

Gozler, A., Bozgeyikli, H., & Avci, A. (2017). Sinif ogretmeni adaylarinin basari yonelimleri ile mesleki kaygi duzeylerinin incelenmesi [An investigaton of primary school pre-service teachers' achievement goal orientations and occupational concerns]. Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 17(1), 189-211.

Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 541.

Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P. ve Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation in children's early academic success. Journal of School Psychology, 45(1), 3-19.

Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L., & Akey, K. L. (2004). Predicting high school students' cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 462-482.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Rethinking achievement goals: When are they adaptive for college students and why?. Educational Psychologist, 33(1), 1-21.

Heyman, G. D., & Dweck, C. S. (1992). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: Their relation and their role in adaptive motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 16(3), 231-247.

Ip, W. Y., Lee, D. T., Lee, I. F., Chau, J. P., Wootton, Y. S., & Chang, A. M. (2000). Disposition towards critical thinking: A study of Chinese undergraduate nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(1), 84-90.

Ispir, O. A., Ay, Z. S. P., & Saygi, E. (2011). Ustun basarili ogrencilerin ozduzenleyici ogrenme stratejileri, matematige karsi motivasyonlari ve duşunme stilleri [High achiever students’ self regulated learning strategies, motivation towards mathematics, and their thinking styles].  Education and Science, 36(162), 235-246.

Kaplan, A. & Maehr, M. (1999). Achievement goals and student well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(4), 330-358.

Karbalaei, A. (2012). Critical thinking and academic achievement. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 17(2), 121-128.

Koray, O., Koksal, M. S., Ozdemir, M., & Presley, A. I. (2007). Yaratici ve elestirel dusunme temelli fen laboratuari uygulamalarinin akademik basari ve bilimsel surec becerileri uzerine etkisi [The effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications on academic achievement and science process skills]. Elementary Education Online, 6(3), 377-389.

Kucukoglu, A., Kaya, H., & Turan, A. (2010). Sinif ogretmenliği ABD ogrencilerinin basari yonelimi algilarinin farkli degiskenler acisindan incelenmesi (Ataturk Universitesi ve Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Ornegi) [The Analysis of the Candidate of the Primary Teacher’s Perception Orientation of Success in Terms of Different Variations (Ataturk University and Ondokuz Mayis University Sample)]. Journal of Social Science, 20(2), 121-135.

Lemyre, P. N., Roberts, G. C., & Ommundsen, Y. (2002). Achievement goal orientations, perceived ability, and sportspersonship in youth soccer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(2), 120-136.

Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 486-512.

Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 487-503.

Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students' goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 514-523.

Melo, J. (2015). A baseline study of strategies to promote critical thinking in the preschool classroom. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 1(1), 30-54.

Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., & Middleton, M. (2001). Performance-approach goals: Good for what, for whom, under what circumstances, and at what cost?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 77-86.

Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., Middleton, M., Maehr, M. L., Urdan, T., Anderman, L. H., Anderman, E.& Roeser, R. (1998). The development and validation of scales assessing students' achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(2), 113-131.

Miller, R. B., Greene, B. A., Montalvo, G. P., Ravindran, B., & Nichols, J. D. (1996). Engagement in academic work: The role of learning goals, future consequences, pleasing others, and perceived ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(4), 388-422.

Nicholls, J. G., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. B. (1985). Adolescents' theories of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(6), 683-692.

Nota, L., Soresi, S., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation and academic achievement and resilience: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(3), 198-215.

Ozturk, N., & Ulusoy, H. (2008). Lisans ve yuksek lisans hemsirelik ogrencilerinin elestirel dusunme duzeyleri ve elestirel dusunmeyi etkileyen faktorler [Baccalaureate and masters' degree nursing students' levels of critical thinking and factors influencing critical thinking]. Maltepe Universitesi Hemsirelik Bilim ve Sanati Dergisi, 1(1), 15-25.

Pajares, F., & Cheong, Y. F. (2003). Achievement goal orientations in writing: A developmental perspective. International Journal of Educational Research, 39(4), 437-455.

Paterson, C. C. (1996). Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement of Senior Biology Students. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 42(2), 48-52.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2002). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your professional and personal life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Phan, H. P. (2006). Examination of student learning approaches, reflective thinking, and epistemological believes: A latent variables approach. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 4(3), 577-610.

Phan, H. P. (2009a). Amalgamation of future time orientation, epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study strategies: Empirical evidence established. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 155–173.

Phan, H. P. (2009b). Exploring students’ reflective thinking practice, deep processing strategies, effort, and achievement goal orientations. Educational Psychology, 29(3), 297-313.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Theory, research and applications (p. 451-529). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.

Polnariev, B. A. (2006). Dynamics of preschoolers self-regulation: viewed through the lens of conflict resolution strategies during peer free-play (Unpublished doctoral thesis). The City University of New York, New York.

Poondej, C., Koul, R., & Sujivorakul, C. (2013). Achievement goal orientation and the critical thinking disposition of college students across academic programmes. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 37(4), 504-518.

Ruban, L., & Reis, S. M. (2006). Patterns of self‐regulatory strategy use among low‐achieving and high‐achieving university students. Roeper Review, 28(3), 148-156.

Schraw, G., Horn, C., Thorndike-Christ, T., & Bruning, R. (1995), Academic goal orientations and student classroom achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), 359–368.

Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community. Retrieved May 28, 2017 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766.

Semerci, N. (2000). Kritik dusunme olcegi [Scale of critical thinking]. Education and Science, 25(116), 23-26.

Semerci, N. (2016). Elestirel dusunme egilimi (EDE) olceginin gelistirilmesi: Gecerlik ve guvenirlik revize calismasi [The development of critical thinking disposition scale (CTHD): Study on the revision of validity and reliability]. Electronic Turkish Studies, 11(9), 725-740.

Schunk, D. H. (1984). Self‐efficacy perspective on achievement behavior. Educational Psychologist, 19(1), 48-58.

Smith-Donald, R., Raver, C. C., Hayes, T., & Richardson, B. (2007). Preliminary construct and concurrent validity of the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA) for field-based research. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 173-187.

Steward, R.J., & Al-Abdulla, Y. (1989). An examination of the relationship between critical thinking and academic success on a university campus. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED318936.

Tan, J. A., & Hall, R. J. (2005). The effects of social desirability bias on applied measures of goal orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(8), 1891-1902.

Tatli, C. E., Ergin, D. A., & Demir, E. (2016). PISA 2012 Turkiye verilerine gore ogrencilerin matematik anksiyetesinin siniflandiricilari [Classifiers of students’ mathematical anxiety according to PISA 2012 Turkey data]. Elementary Education Online, 15(2), 696-707.

Tilson, E. R. (1986). The effect of computer enhanced skill training in critical thinking and cognitive monitoring on learning and development of critical thinking in an undergraduate family nursing course (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Turan, S., & Demirel, O. (2010). Oz-duzenleyici ogrenme becerilerinin akademik basari ile iliskisi: Hacettepe Universitesi Tip Fakultesi ornegi  [The relationship between self-regulated learning skills and achievement: A case from Hacettepe University Medical School]. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 38, 279-291.

Urdan, T. C., & Maehr, M. L. (1995). Beyond a two-goal theory of motivation and achievement: A case for social goals. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 213-243.

Uredi, I., & Uredi, L. (2005). Ilkogretim 8. sinif ogrencilerinin oz-duzenleme stratejileri ve motivasyonel inanclarinin matematik basarisini yordama gucu [The predictive power of self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs on mathematics achievement of primary school 8th grade students]. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 1(2), 250-260.

Villavicencio, F. T. (2011). Critical thinking, negative academic emotions, and achievement: A mediational analysis. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(1), 118-126.

Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573.

Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students' motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 236-250.

Yildiz Guler. T., Kara Erturk, H. G., Tanribuyurdu Findik, E., & Gonen, M. (2014). Examining self-regulation skills according to teacher-child interaction quality. Education and Science, 39(176), 329-338.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11(4), 307-313.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33(2-3), 73-86.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.

Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663-676.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Zweig, D., & Webster, J. (2004). What are we measuring? An examination of the relationships between the big-five personality traits, goal orientation, and performance intentions. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(7), 1693-1708.